Agritourism : market segmentation profile of potential and practising agritourists

Speirs, Lindsay Justine (2003-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Rural tourism and agritourism are in their infant stages in South Africa. It benefits the farmer, the local community, the rural area, the tourist and the country. It is therefore a viable option but requires more research, management, planning and control for it to be successful. Many agritourism ventures are not as successful as they should be. The problem is that farmers/landowners do not research the demand for tourist products before they deliver them and do not know whom they are catering for. To stay competitive, the tourists' characteristics ought to be understood. This would provide insight into what facilities and services to supply, what resources to utilise and how to promote the agritourism destination. The aim of this study was to segment the potential and practising agritourists into different clusters, according to their preferences, and to investigate the clusters' characteristics and behaviours. The objectives were to: 1. Investigate the potential and practising agritourists' socio-economic, demographic and travel characteristics. 2. Rate all the attractions, activities and services according to their popularity. 3. Clarify the preferences of these tourists, concerning attractions and activities, by combining similar ones. 4. Divide the tourists into clusters of similar preferences. 5. Compare the socio-economic, demographic and travel characteristics of the different clusters of tourists. 6. Produce a set of guidelines for entrepreneurs/farmers/landowners, as to what tourist products they should supply or develop, and for whom, and how they should market them. This study entailed distributing questionnaires to potential and practising agritourists at shopping centres and farms involved in agritouri'swimming', 'picnicking', 'scenic drives', 'dams/lakes/pans' and 'small game' were the most popular agritourism attractions and activities. Factor analysis was used to reduce the number of variables by combining like variables (attractions) and cluster analysis was utilised to segment the respondents into five clusters of tourists with similar preferences for agritourism attractions and activities. Cross tabulation, frequencies and descriptive statistics were used to describe these different clusters. These groups of tourists were described according to their demographic, socio-economic and travel characteristics. Segmenting tourism markets and compiling profiles of the tourists within each sub-market has proved to be advantageous. Once the demands of the tourists are known, the appropriate facilities and number of facilities can be developed. Knowing who the tourists are and where to target them, will lead to better marketing, planning and promotion of the destination. Customer satisfaction will be increased, as it is known exactly who must be catered for, thereby resulting in repeat visits. The five clusters of tourists were: 'general nature tourists'; 'urban tourists'; 'hard outdoor adventure tourists'; 'visual or soft outdoor adventure tourists'; and 'agritourists'. All these tourists, except 'urban tourists', are excellent potential agritourists. The results of this study were used to compile guidelines for entrepreneurs. These guidelines could help them in deciding who to target (which clusters), what agritourism products to develop (attractions, activities and services) and how to market them (means of advertising). Appropriate accommodation types and the availability of equipment and facilities for activities also act as attractions. This study demonstrates an inexpensive method of gathering information about tourists, thereby improving marketing and planning approaches. It illustrates how the potential and practising agritourists can be divided into sub-markets. The agritourism market is a heterogeneous market and must therefore be segmented. Any entrepreneur can use the results of this market segmentation. Any future studies, similar to this one, could consist of a sample much larger. As this study was primarily based in the Western Cape, similar research should be executed in other distinct regions. It would be illuminating to see how the groups of agritourists vary according to geographical areas.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Landelike en agritoerisme is in hulontluikende fase in Suid-Afrika. Dit bevoordeel die boer, die plaaslike gemeenskap, die landelike streek, die toeris en die land. Dit is 'n lewensvatbare opsie maar benodig meer navorsing, bestuur, beplanning en beheer om suksesvol te wees. Baie agritoerisme ondernemings is nie so geslaagd as wat dit kan wees nie. Die probleem is dat die boere/grondeienaars nie die nodige navorsing doen omtrent die aanvraag na 'n produk voordat hul dit aanbied nie, en weet ook nie watter toerismesegment hul wil bevredig nie. Om mededingend te bly moet die toeris se eienskappe verstaan word. Dit sal insae gee in watter fasiliteite en dienste om te voorsien, asook watter bronne om te benut om die agritoerismedestinasie te promoveer. Die doel van hierdie studie was om potensiële en praktiserende agritoeriste te groepeer in verskillende segmente volgens hulle voorkeure en groeps gedrag. Die doelwitte was om: 1. Potensiële en praktiserende agritoeriste se sosio-ekonomiese, demografiese en reiseienskappe te ondersoek. 2. Die rangorde van attraksies, aktiwiteite en dienste volgens gewildheid te bepaal. 3. Voorkeure van toeriste aangaande attraksies en aktiwiteite te bepaal deur gelyksoortige groeperings te kombineer. 4. Toeriste in trosgroepe met gelyksoortige voorkeure te verdeel. 5. Die sosio-ekonomiese, demografiese en reiseienskappe van verskillende toeristetrosgroepe te vergelyk. 6. Riglyne vir ondernemers/boere/grondeienaars te formuleer vir watter toeristeprodukte hul behoort te verskaf of ontwikkel en aan wie en hoe hul dit behoort te bemark. Hierdie studie het die verspreiding van vraelyste aan potensiële en praktiserende agritoeriste in winkelsentrums en plase, betrokke by agritoerisme, behels. Die vraelyste het informasie oor potensiële en praktiserende agritoeriste verskaf Een-honderd en agt vraelyste was voltooi. Die respondente het aangedui dat 'berge', 'watervalle', 'riviere', 'grootwild', 'swem', 'pieknieks', 'natuurskoonplesierritte' , 'damme/mere/panne' en 'kleinwild' die gewildste agritoerisme attraksies en aktiwiteite is. Faktoranalise is gebruik om die getal verandelikes te verminder deur soortgelyke verandelikes (attraksies) te kombineer en trosanalise te gebruik om die respondente te segmenteer in vyf trosgroepe toeriste met gelyksoortige voorkeure vir agritoerisme attraksies en aktiwiteite. Kruistabulering, frekwensies en beskrywende statistiek was gebruik om hierdie verskillende trosse te beskryf volgens hul demografiese, sosio-ekonomiese en reiseienskappe. Segmentering van die toerismemark en die saamstel van profiele van die toeriste binne elke sub-mark is voordelig bevind. As die vereistes van die toeriste bekend is, kan die gepaste fasiliteite en aantal fasiliteite ontwikkel word. Om te weet wie die toeriste is en waar om hulle te teiken sal tot beter bemarking, beplanning en promosie van die destinasie lei. Kliëntbevrediging sal toeneem, omdat ondernemers presies weet wie om te bevredig en dit sal herhaalde besoeke tot gevolg hê. Die vyf trosgroepe toeriste was: 'algemene natuurtoeriste'; 'stedelike toeriste'; 'ekstreme buitelug avontuurtoeriste' ; 'visuele of nie-ekstreme buitelug avontuurtoeriste' ; en 'agritoeriste'. Al die toeriste behalwe stedelike toeriste is uitstekende potensiële agritoeriste. Die resultate van hierdie studie is gebruik om riglyne vir ondernemers te kompileer. Hierdie riglyne kan hul help om te besluit wie om te teiken (watter trosse), watter agritoerisme produkte om te ontwikkel (attraksies, aktiwiteite en dienste) en hoe om dit te bemark (wyse van advertensie). Toepaslike akkommodasie en die beskikbaarheid van toerusting en fasiliteite vir aktiwiteite dien ook as attraksies. Hierdie studie demonstreer 'n ekonomiese manier om informasie omtrent toeriste in te win, om bemarking en beplanning te verbeter. Dit illustreer hoe die potensiële en praktiserende agritoeris ook in sub-markte ingedeel kan word. Die agritoerisme mark is 'n heterogenemark en moet dus gesegmenteer word. Enige ontwikkelaar kan die resultate van hierdie marksegmentasie gebruik. Soortgelyke navorsing behoort in die toekoms op 'n groter steekproef gedoen word. Omdat hierdie studie hoofsaaklik in die Wes-Kaap gebaseer was, behoort soortgelyke navorsing in ander bepaalde streke uitgevoer te word. Dit sal insiggewend wees om te sien hoe die groepe agritoeriste volgens geografiese streke varieer.

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