The characterization of the basidiomycetes and other fungi associated with esca of grapevines in South Africa

White, Chana-Lee (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-12)

Thesis (MSc (Plant Pathology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Esca is a disease affecting grapevines and is potentially devastating as there are economic losses due to a decrease in yield, wine quality and berry quality. Vineyards also need to be replaced earlier and therefore esca has a great impact on the wine, table grape and raisin industries. The disease is known to affect vineyards worldwide and has been studied extensively in Europe, but not in South Africa. Esca diseased grapevines were observed for the first time prior to 1981 in South African vineyards. The disease is primarily caused by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (both causing brown and black wood streaking) and white rot basidiomycete species such as Fomitiporia mediterranea which cause wood rot in the trunks and arms of generally older grapevines. Species of the Botryosphaeriaceae and Phomopsis (mainly Phomopsis viticola) and Eutypa lata have also been isolated from esca diseased vines, but their association with esca is unclear. Some of the symptoms associated with the disease on most grapevine cultivars include ‘tiger-stripe’ foliar symptoms, apoplexy and berry symptoms such as shriveling, discoloration and ‘black measles’. These external symptoms as well as internal symptoms are thought to be a result of toxin and enzyme production by the fungi involved. Symptom expression is erratic and varies from year to year making investigations into the causal fungi and the toxins and enzymes secreted in planta difficult. Vines with internal or external symptoms of esca were sampled in this study from table and wine grape cultivars in 37 towns in the Western Cape, Northern Cape and Limpopo provinces. The majority of sampled vines were over ten years of age, but vines as young as two to three years were also found to be infected. The external symptoms included dieback, tiger striped leaves, berry symptoms (shriveling, insufficient colouring and black spots) and apoplexy. These symptoms resembled those found on grapevines in Europe, Australia and the USA. The internal symptoms found were also similar to European symptoms and included white rot, black and brown wood streaking, brown necrosis within white rot, sectorial brown necrosis and central brown/ red/ black margin. The fungi mostly isolated from the white rot were the basidiomycetes. Black and brown wood streaking was primarily caused by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. Brown necrosis within the white rot was caused by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and less frequently by Phaeoacremonium spp., Eutypa lata, Botryosphaeriaceae and Pleurostomophora richardsiae. The sectorial brown necrosis and the central/ brown/ red/ black margin were dominated by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. The fruiting bodies of the basidiomycetes were found on only a few grapevines. The fungal species associated with the internal wood symptoms were characterized on cultural growth patterns, morphology as well as phylogenetic inference. The gene areas sequenced included the internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8S rRNA gene for the basidiomycetes and Phomopsis isolates, the partial b-tubulin gene for Phaeoacremonium isolates and the partial translation elongation-1a gene for the Botryosphaeriaceae isolates. The basidiomycete isolates fell into ten taxa within the Hymenochaetales of which two could be linked to known genera, namely Fomitiporia and Phellinus. The ten basidiomycete taxa do not correspond to any published sequences. Eutypa lata, Diaporthe ambigua, Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum australe, Neofusicoccum parvum, Phomopsis viticola, Phomopsis sp. 1, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and six species of Phaeoacremonium including P. aleophilum, P. alvesii, P. parasiticum, P. iranianum, P. mortoniae and P. sicilianum were also isolated of which the latter three are reported for the first time in South Africa. To understand the role of the basidiomycetes in the complex, toxin and enzyme analyses was determined for these fungi. Selected basidiomycete isolates were grown up in liquid broth and extractions performed to test for the presence of 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde. All of the basidiomycete isolates were able to produce this toxin which is known to be phytotoxic. The basidiomycetes were then tested for the presence of certain wood degrading enzymes. All of the taxa were able to produce manganese peroxidase. Laccase was produced by all taxa, except Taxon 8. Lignin peroxidase was produced by Taxa 1, 2, 7, Fomitiporia sp. and the Phellinus sp. All the basidiomycete isolates were able to produce cellulose and none were able to produce xylanase. These enzyme tests showed that the basidiomycetes produce a wide variety of enzymes which are able to degrade cellulase and lignin which are both structural components of wood. Given the wide distribution of esca in the grape growing regions investigated in South Africa and the diverse amount of species found, this disease must surely be seen as a limiting factor to the productive lifespan of vineyards and quality of produce. Preventative measures such as sanitation and pruning wound protection contribute to the management of the disease, but many questions still remain about the synergy of the causal fungi, epidemiology and management of esca.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Esca is ‘n wingerd siekte wat potensieel skade kan aanrig as gevolg van ekonomiese verliese weens verlaagde opbrengs, wyn kwaliteit en vrug kwaliteit. Wingerde moet ook vroeër vervang word en daarom het esca ’n groot impak op die wyn, tafeldryf en rosyne industrieë. Esca word wêreldwyd gevind op wingerd en is al intensief nagevors in Europa, maar nog nie in Suid-Afrika. Esca is vir die eerste keer in die 1980’s in Suid-Afrikaanse wingerde gerapporteer. Die primêre veroorsaakende organismes van esca is Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora wat bruin en swart vaatweefsel verkleuring veroorsaak en basidiomycete spesies soos Fomitiporia mediterranea wat wit verotting veroorsaak in die stam en arms van ouer wingerd. Spesies van die Botryosphaeriaceae en Phomopsis (hoofsaaklik Phomopsis viticola) en Eutypa lata is ook al vanaf esca simptome geïsoleer, maar hul assosiasie met die siekte is nie duidelik nie. Algemene simptome wat voorkom op die meeste wingerd kultivars met esca sluit in ‘tiger-stripe’ blaar simptome, apopleksie en vrug simptome soos verdroging, verkleuring en spikkels (black measles). Interne en eksterne simptome kan wees as gevolg van toksiene en ensiem produksie van die swamme wat betrokke is by esca. Eksterne simptoom uitdrukking is wisselvallig en varieer van jaar tot jaar. Dit bemoelik die bestudering van die swamme en die toksiene en ensieme wat afgeskei word in planta. Wingerd monsters met eksterne en interne simptome is versamel van tafel en wyndruif kultivars in 37 dorpe in die Wes-Kaap, Noord-Kaap en Limpopo provinsies. Die meerderheid monsters was ouer as tien jaar maar wingerde wat twee tot drie jaar oud was, was ook gevind. Die eksterne simptome wat op hierdie kultivars gevind is het terugsterwing, ‘tiger striped’ blare, vrug simptome (verkrimping en onvoldoende verkleuring) en apopleksie ingesluit. Hierdie simptome stem ooreen met soortgelyke simptome gevind op wingerd in Europa, Australië en die VSA. Interne simptome was ooreenstemmend met simptome wat gevind word in Europa. Die interne simptome het wit verotting, bruin en swart streepvorming, bruin nekrose met wit verotting, sektoriale bruin nekrose en sentrale bruin/ rooi/ swart kante ingesluit. Basidiomycete swamme is meestal uit die wit verotting gedeeltes geïsoleer. Swart en bruin hout streepvorming was meestal deur Phaeomoniella chlamydospora veroorsaak. Bruin nekrose binne die wit verotting was meestal deur Phaeomoniella chlamydospora veroorsaak en in ‘n mindere mate deur Phaeoacremonium spp., Eutypa lata, Botryosphaeriaceae en Pleurostomophora richardsiae. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora was die hoof veroorsakende organisme van sektoriale bruin nekrose en die sentrale bruin/ rooi/ swart kante. Vrugliggame van die basiodiomycete is op enkele wingerde gevind. Swam soorte wat geassosieer word met die interne hout simptome was verder gekarakteriseer op kultuur groei, morfologiese eienskappe, en filogenetiese analise. Die geen areas waarvan die basis paar volgorde bepaal was sluit in die interne getranskribeerde spasies en die 5.8S rRNA geen vir die basidiomycete en Phomopsis isolate, die gedeeltelike btubulien geen vir Phaeoacremonium isolate en die gedeeltelike translasie velenging-1a geen vir die Botryosphaericeae isolate. Die basidiomycete isolate was versprei oor tien taksons binne die Hymenochaetales waarvan twee genusse gekoppel kon word aan die genera Fomitiporia en Phellinus. Die tien basidiomycete taksons kom nie ooreen met enige gepubliseerde DNS volgordes. Eutypa lata, Phomopsis viticola, Phomopsis sp. 1, Diaporthe ambigua, Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum parvum, Neofusicoccum australe, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora en ses spesies van Phaeoacremonium insluitend P. aleophilum, P. alvesii, P. parasiticum, P. iranianum, P. mortoniae en P. sicilianum is ook geïsoleer. Hierdie is die eerste keer dat P. iranianum, P. mortoniae en P. sicilianum in Suid-Afrika gerapporteer word. Om die rol wat die basidiomycete in die siekte-kompleks speel beter te verstaan is toksien en ensiem analises uitgevoer. Geselekteerde basidiomycete isolate is gekweek in vloeibare groei medium en ekstraksies uitgevoer om te toets vir die teenwoordigheid van 4- hydroxy-benzaldehyde. Al die basidiomycete isolate kon 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde, wat bekend is om fitotoksies te wees, produseer. Die basidiomycete isolate was verder getoets vir die produksie van spesifieke hout afbrekende ensieme. Al die basidiomycete taksons kon mangaan-peroksidase produseer. Lakkase was geproduseer deur al die taksons, uitsluitend Takson 8. Lignien-peroksidase was geproduseer deur Taksons 1, 2, 7, Fomitiporia sp. en die Phellinus sp. Al die basidiomycete isolate kon sellulose produseer, maar geen kon xilanase produseer. Die ensiem analises het gewys dat die basidiomycete wat moontlik betrokke is by esca ‘n wye reeks van ensieme kan produseer wat sellulose en lignien kan degradeer. Sellulose en lignien is beide strukturele komponente van hout. Weens die wye verspeiding van esca geaffekteerde wingerde in Suid Afrika en die wye reeks van spesies wat betrokke is by die siekte kompleks moet esca sekerlik gesien word as een van die beperkende faktore op die produktiewe leeftyd van wingerde en die kwaliteit van druiwe wat geproduseer word. Sanitasie en snoeiwond beskerming is voorkomende maatreëls wat ingestel kan word om die effek en verspreiding van esca te beperk maar daar is nog baie vrae wat antwoorde benodig oor die sinergie van die veroorsakende swamme, epidemiologie en bestuur van esca.

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