The prevalence of coronary risk factors among children, ages 11 to 13, in selected Western Cape schools

De Klerk, Danelle Ria (2002-12)

Thesis (MScSportSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have shown that coronary artery disease (CAD) has its origin in childhood. Several risk factors that increase a person's risk for the development of CAD are prevalent amongst children. South African statistics concerning the prevalence of these risk factors are limited. Research has shown that early intervention to eliminate risk factors can decrease the risk for the development of CAD. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of certain coronary risk factors amongst children aged 11 to 13 years in certain Western Cape schools. Certain selected factors were tested. These included obesity, lack of physical activity, hypertension, low physical fitness (V02max), a family history associated with an increased risk, exposure to cigarette smoke, prevalence of diabetes mellitus and an unhealthy diet. The sample consisted out of 288 children and was made up by 154 boys and 134 girls. Certain anthropometrical measurements (stature, weight, skinfoids, waist and hip circumferences) were taken. Activity levels, family history, exposure to cigarette smoke, prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diet, were measured by means of questionnaires. Physical fitness (V02max) was tested with a three-minute step-test. A sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure. Depending on the circumference of the child's arm, a paediatric or adult size cuff was used. The results of the study showed that 22.01% of the boys and 59.7% of the girls had a percentage body fat so high that it was considered a coronary risk factor. Physical fitness levels were considered risk factors in 2.6% of the boys and 9% of the girls. A very high percentage of the children tested had a family history associated with an increased risk for the development of CAD (73.38% of the boys and 78.36% of the girls). Systolic hypertension was prevalent among 22.01% of the boys and 23.13% of the girls. Diastolic hypertension was only prevalent among 5.19% of the boys and 5.97% of the girls. Low activity levels were considered a risk factor in 31.17% of the boys and 39.55% of the girls. Out of all the subjects, 32.47% of the boys and 37.31% of the girls were exposed to cigarette smoke on a daily basis. The results of this study shows that certain coronary risk factors are quite common amongst children. Prevention programmes that focuses on elimination of coronary risk factors, such as hypertension, inactivity and obesity, is essential for the prevention of subsequent coronary artery disease in adults.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie studies het al bewys dat koronêre hartvatsiekte (KHS) reeds sy ontstaan het in kinders van baie jong ouderdomme. Verskeie risikofaktore wat tot die latere ontstaan van KHS lei kom ook onder jong kinders voor. Statistiek ten opsigte van die voorkoms van hierdie risikofaktore onder kinders in Suid-Afrika is egter baie beperk. Verskeie navorsing toon dat vroeë intervensie kan lei tot "n verlaging in risiko vir die ontwikkeling van KHS op "n latere stadium. Die doel van die studie was om die voorkoms van sekere koronêre risikofaktore in kinders in Suid-Afrika te ondersoek. Sekere risikofaktore is ondersoek, dit het ingesluit, obesiteit, lae fisieke aktiwitietsvlakke, hipertensie, lae fisieke fiksheid (V02maks), 'n familie geskiedenis wat geassosieer word met "n verhoogte risiko, blootstelling aan sigaret rook, die voorkoms van diabetes mellitus en "n swak dieet. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 288 kinders waarvan 134 meisies en 154 seuns was. Verskeie antropometriese meetings (lengte, massa, velvoue, middel- en heup omtrekmates) is geneem. Aktiwiteitsvlakke, familiegeskiedenis, blootstelling aan sigarette rook, voorkoms van diabetes mellitus en dieet is deur middel van vraelyste vasgestel. Fisieke fiksheid (V02maks) is deur middel van "n drie-minuut-opstaptoets vasgestel. Bloeddruk is met "n sfigmomanometer gemeet. Afhangend van die omtrek van die kind se arm is "n pediatries- of volwasse-grootte drukband gebruik. Persentasie liggaamsvet was by 22.01% van die seuns en 59.7% van die meisies so hoog dat dit as "n risikofaktor beskou kan word. Fisieke fiksheidsvlakke kan by 2.6% van die seuns en 9% van die meisies as "n risikofaktor beskou word. "n Baie hoë persentasie van die kinders het "n familiegeskiedenis gehad wat geassosieer word met "n verhoogde risiko vir die ontwikkeling van KHS (73.38% van die seuns en 78.36% van die meisies). Sistoliese hipertensie het onder 22.01% van die seuns en 23.13% van die meisies voorgekom. Diastoliese hipertensie het baie minder voorgekom as sistoliese hipertensie (5.19% van die seuns en 5.97% van die meisies). Lae aktiwiteitsvlakke het onder 31.17% van die seuns en 39.55% van die meisies voorgekom. 'n Redelike hoë persentasie van die kinders word daagliks aan sigaretrook van hulouers of oppassers blootgestel (32.47% van die seuns en 37.31% van die meisies.) Die resultate van die studie dui aan dat daar 'n redelike hoë voorkoms van sekere koronêre risikofaktore onder kinders is. Ondersoek moet ingestel word na moontlike, goed gestruktureerde intervensieprogramme.

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