The influence of transformational and transactional leadership on interpersonal trust through perceptions of fairness

Krafft, Pascale (2002-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Southern African organisations have to survive In an increasingly competitive and globalised market. Southern African organisations are characterised through low productivity levels, low levels of trust between employers and employees, low levels of organisational commitment and effectiveness. Solutions must be found in order to overcome these problems and to prevent them in the future. This study might offer such a solution. The primary goal of this study was to establish whether there is a relationship between transformational and transactional leadership and interpersonal trust, and whether this relationship is influenced through organisational justice (in terms of procedural, interactional and distributive justice). The basis of this study was to establish whether procedural justice had a mediating effect on the relationship between transformational leadership and trust, and whether distributive justice had a mediating effect on the relationship between transactional leadership and trust. Another goal of this study was to establish whether there was a direct relationship between transformational leadership and trust. This study was based on a model of Pillai, Schriesheim and Williams (1999) who tested these relationships in the USA. Their results gave rise to replicating this study in Southern Africa. A literature study of transformational and transactional leadership, organisational justice (in terms of procedural, interactional, and distributive justice) and trust was conducted. The relationship between these constructs has also been analysed in the literature study. A questionnaire consisting of four sections was compiled in accordance with the literature study. These questionnaires were distributed to a Namibian bank. Twelve branches took part in this research. The sample comprised 281 persons, each of whom had to complete the questionnaire. Section A of the questionnaire was designed to give an indication of the demographic variables of the participants. Section B measured transformational and transactional leadership. This section was based on Bass and Avolio's multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). Section C was compiled in accordance with Moorman's study of organisational justice. This section measured procedural, interactional and distributive justice. The last section, Section D, measured trust and was based on Bews's questionnaire of trust. The statistical analysis was conducted in two phases. In phase one, the confirmatory factor analysis on the original theoretical model did not produce adequate goodness-of-fit statistics. The structural model did not converge on LISREL in the first phase. Subsequently, alternative solutions had to be found and a second phase of statistical analysis was undertaken. In this phase, the various leadership dimensions were separated to test their individual effects in the model. Initially, principal component analyses using Varimax rotation and item analyses were performed on the data set using SPSS. Some items had to be removed as a result of the dimensionality and item analyses. Thereafter confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the reduced data set, using LISREL. The results indicated satisfactory factor loadings on the measurement models. Good fit was also revealed for the measurement models. Consequently, the structural model was tested on LISREL. The results provided reasonable goodness-of-fit statistics, but some hypotheses failed to be corroborated in this study. New insights have also been gained through the results. Conclusions were drawn from the results obtained and recommendations are made for future research.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suider-Afrikaanse ondernemings moet in 'n toenemend kompeterende en internasionale besigheidswêreld probeer oorleef. Suider-Afrikaanse ondernemings word egter gekenmerk deur lae produktiwiteitsvlakke, 'n groot mate van wantroue tussen werknemers en werkgewers, lae vlakke van organisatoriese betrokkenheid en effektiwiteit. Oplossings moet gevind word om hierdie probleme te oorkom en in die toekoms te voorkom. Hierdie studie lewer moontlik 'n oplossing. Die primêre doel van hierdie studie IS om te bepaal of daar 'n verwantskap tussen transformasionele en transaksionele leierskap en vertroue bestaan, en of hierdie verwantskap deur persepsies van billikheid beïnvloed word. Die grondslag van dié studie was om vas te stelof prosessuele (procedural) billikheid 'n bemiddelende invloed op die verband tussen transformasionele leierskap en vertroue uitoefen, en of distributiewe billikheid 'n bemiddelende invloed uitoefen op die verhouding tussen transaksionele leierskap en vertroue. Verder is daar ook gekyk of daar 'n direkte verband tussen transformasionele leierskap en vertroue bestaan. Hierdie studie is gegrond op Pillai, Schriesheim en Williams (1999) se model, wat die verband tussen hierdie konstrukte in die VSA getoets het. Hulle resultate het aanleiding tot die herhaling van hierdie studie in Suider-Afrika gegee. 'n Literatuurstudie oor transformasionele en transaksionele leierskap, organisatoriese billikheid (in terme van prosessuele, interaktiewe en distributiewe billikheid) en vertroue is uitgevoer. Die verband tussen hierdie konstrukte is ook in die literatuurstudie ontleed. 'n Vraelys is na aanleiding van die literatuurstudie opgestel en in 'n Namibiese Bank versprei. Twaalf banktakke het aan hierdie studie deelgeneem. Die steekproef het uit 281 persone bestaan wat elkeen 'n vraelys moes voltooi. Afdeling A van die vraelys was ontwerp om 'n aanduiding van die demografiese veranderlikes van die deelnemers te verkry. Afdeling B het transformasionele en transaksionele leierskap gemeet en was op Bass en Avolio se leierskapsvraelys gebaseer. Afdeling C is opgestel na aanleiding van Moorman se studie oor billikheid in orgarnsasies. Hierdie deel het prosessuele, interaktiewe en distributiewe billikheid gemeet. Die laaste afdeling, afdeling D, het interpersoonlike vertroue gemeet en is gebaseer op Bews se vertrouevraelys. Die statistiese analise is in twee fases uitgevoer. In die eerste fase is die oorspronklike teoretiese modelop LISREL getoets. Die bevestigende faktoranalises van die latente veranderlikes het nie goeie passingstatistieke getoon nie. Die strukturele model het ook nie gekonvergeer nie. As gevolg hiervan moes alternatiewe oplossings gevind word en 'n tweede fase van statistiese anal ise is toegepas. Die leierskapsoriëntasies is opgedeel In hulle onderskeie dimensies. Daaropvolgend is eers dimensieanalise met die hulp van hootkomponentontleding en itemontleding gedoen. Verskeie items moes op grond van hierdie analises verwyder word. Op die verkorte datastel is daar weer 'n bevestigende faktoranalises met behulp van LISREL gedoen. Die passingstatistieke het hier aanvaarbare resultate opgelewer. Vervolgens is die nuwe strukturele model met behulp van LISREL getoets. Die resultate het redelike passingstatistieke gelewer, maar daar kon nie steun vir alle hipoteses gevind word nie. Nuwe insigte is deur die resultate verwerf. Op grond van die resultate is daar tot bepaalde gevolgtrekkings gekom en daar word aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing gemaak.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53131
This item appears in the following collections: