Separation of 103Pd from Ag and Rh targets for production of '103 Pd seeds' for prostate cancer brachytherapy

Aardaneh, Khosro (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Radiochemical separation of 103Pd from natAg, usmg a 66 MeV proton-induced reaction at iThemba LABS, was studied and a radiochemical method was developed for the separation. For the separation, which comprises the separation of Pd from a large amount of target material (16 g Ag), as well as Rh radioisotopes produced from decay of their Pd parents (mainly 101Rhand IOORh),three ion exchange resins were tested: a Chelex 100 chelating resin, the AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin and a AG MP-I anion exchange resin. For the optimum elution ofPd from the latter two resins, two elution curves using water and 5% ammonia solution, were obtained. With an average recovery of 97.4% and sharper elution curve from the macroporous AG MP-I, this resin was finally chosen for routine production. To achieve the separation, a simple, easily operated radiochemical processing system was designed and installed in a hot cell. Radiochemical separation of 103Pd from a Rh target was also studied and several cation and anion exchange resins were tested. A carrier-free separation of 103Pd was developed, using an AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin. Bombarded tablets of RhCh.3H20, as the targets, were used for these separations. The procedure, originally designed for the separation of Pd from Cu and Rh, was modified using H202 for the oxidation of Ru prior to the sorption on the resin and successfully used for the separation of isotopes of Rh from the isotopes of Pd, Ru, Tc, Nb, Mo, Zr and Y, which were produced by 400 MeV 160_ and 12C-induced RhCb.3H20 targets. To elute the Pd from the resin, 5% ammonia solution was used; the recovery was about 92%. To prepare the Rh target for routine production, an electroplating method of Rh on a Cu substrate was developed. Rh(CI04)3, in 0.5 M perchloric acid, was used as the electrolyte bath. The electroplated Rh was then dissolved by an alternating current technique, using 6 M HCI and a current density of 2 Alcm2. For production of the seeds, I03Pd was sorbed on the weakly basic anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-93 (600-700 Il), by recycling a 0.5 M Hel solution of Pd through a 0.5 cm x 1 cm column for 2 hours. The distribution of I03Pd on the resin beads was measured and RSD of5.7% was obtained. A funnel was designed to transfer the I03Pd-loaded resin beads into the Ti tubes to prepare the seeds (0.7 mm LD., 0.8 mm D.D., and 4.5 mm length). To enclose the tubes as capsules, the end caps were made from 0.02 mm Ti sheet and several pieces were designed and machined for the welding of the caps to the tubes. A spotwelding machine was used for the welding, after small, but vital modifications.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Palladium-l03 kan volgens twee produksieroetes by iThemba LABS vervaardig word, naamlik deur die volgende protongeïnduseerde reaksies: natAg(p,xn)lo3Cd (ty,=7.3 m) ~ 103Ag (ty,=1.1 h) ~ 103Pden I03Rh(p,n) ~ 103Pd. 'n Radiochemiese metode om 103Pd van die Ag-skyfmateriaal te skei, is ontwikkel. Hierdie metode, wat gebaseer is op anioonuitruilerchromatografie met die makroporeuse hars AG MP-I, behels die skeiding van I03Pd van 'n groot hoeveelheid skyfmateriaal (16g Ag), sowel as van Rh-radionukliede (hoofsaaklik looRh en IOlRh), wat geproduseer word deur die verval van hulle Pd-moederisotope. As die Pd met 5% ammonia oplossing geëlueer word, is 'n 97.4% herwinning moontlik. 'n Radiochemiese paneel is ontwerp, gebou en in 'n warmsel geïnstalleer vir roetine produksie. 'n Metode om Rh op 'n kopersubstraat te elektroplateer is ook ontwikkel om 'n Rh-skyf te verkry vir die protonbombardement. 'n Oplossing van 0.5 M HCI04 - Rh(HCI04)3 is as die elektrolietbad gebruik. Die geëlektroplateerde Rh is opgelos in 6 M HCI deur gebruik te maak van 'n wisselstroomtegniek, met 'n stroomdigtheid van 2A1cm2. 'n Metode om "draervrye" I03Pd vanaf die Rh-skyfmateriaal te skei, is ook ontwikkel. Gebombardeerde pille van RhCh.3H20 is as skywe gebruik in die onaktiewe studies. AGI-X8 anioonuitruilerhars is vir hierdie skeidings gebruik en daar is gebruik gemaak van 'n metode wat oorspronklik ontwerp is vir die skeiding van Pd van Cu en Rh. Hierdie prosedure is net effens aangepas deur H202 te gebruik vir die oksidasie van Ru, alvorens dit op die hars gesorbeer is. Hierdie metode is ook suksesvol gebruik vir die isolering van Rh van radionukliede van Pd, Ru, Tc, Nb, Mo, Zr, ens, wat geproduseer is deur 400 MeV 160_ en 12C-geïnduseerde reaksies met Rh in RhCi).3H20 skywe. 5% ammoniakoplossing is gebruik om die Pd uit die hars te elueer, met 'n herwinning van 92%. Om die saadjies vir implantering te maak, is 103Pd op 'n matige basiese anioonuitruilerhars Amberlite IRA-93 gesorbeer deur 'n 103pd-oplossing, in 0.5 M Hel, deur 'n 0.5 ' lcm kolom te hersirkuleer vir 2 uur. 'n Tregter is ontwerp om die I03Pd-gelaaide harskorrels oor te dra na die titaanbuisies (0.7 mm binnedeursnit, 0.8 mm buitedeursnit en 4.5 mm lank). Om die buisies te verseël, is dekseltjies uit 'n 0.02 mm titaanplaat gesny. Verskeie dekseltjies is gemasjieneer om op die buisies vas te sweis. 'n Punt-sweismasjien is gebruik vir die sweiswerk nadat geringe, maar belangrike, aanpassings aan die masjien gedoen is.

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