Participation in competitive games and the development of cooperation among adolescent girls

Rousseau, Jemiema C (2002-12)

Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study explored the potential of competitive games and cooperative games as means for teaching adolescent girls some of the concepts that support cooperation. Hellison's (1995) levels for teaching responsibility were used as guidelines for selecting specific teaching strategies. The intervention consisted of a theme-oriented intervention programme presented to two experimental groups. One group (n = 9) participated in a games programme that consisted of competitive activities and the other group (n = 9) participated in a games programme that consisted of cooperative activities. The experimental groups were presented with theme-oriented lessons based on four concepts that support cooperation: sportsmanship, communication, trust and responsibility. A control group (n = 18) was also identified and used for statistical comparisons. In order to set a context for this study, background information was gathered using a questionnaire to determine how girls from the school (N = 194) felt about competitive games and sports. Three measurement instruments were used to collect data. The assessment of how the girls at the school felt about competitive games and sport was completed, using Gill & Deeter's (1988) Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ). Pre- and posttesting of the girls in the experimental groups also included the SOQ. Harter's (1985) Self-perception Profile was used to measure perceptions of perceived social acceptance. Soudan and Everett's (1981) 24-item questionnaire was used to determine any changes in how the girls in the experimental groups perceived the benefits of participation in physical activity. Results of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire for High School Girls (N = 194) indicate that the girls like competitive activities and enjoy competing, but for them, it is more important to set personal goals in competitive games than it is to win. Following the comparison between pre- and post-test data, it was concluded that the theme-oriented competitive games programme had an effect on how the girls feel about participation in games and sports. They became significantly less competitive in their orientation. No changes were noted in their perceived social acceptance. A significant increase in their perception that participation in sport and physical activity has social benefits as well as benefits in preparing them for a career/job were noted. The theme-oriented cooperative games programme also had a significant effect on how the girls feel about participation in games and sports. The competitive nature and win orientation of the girls participating in the cooperative games programme significantly decreased. No changes were noted in their social acceptance. There was a significant increase in their perception that participation in sport and physical activity has health and fitness benefits. Results on comparing the groups indicate that the perceived athletic competence of the competitive group increased significantly when compared to the cooperative group. No other changes were noted. A themeoriented approach to teaching children about cooperation in a competitive and/or cooperative environment seems to be an effective strategy.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie het die potensiaal nagevors van kompeterende spele en koëperatiewe spele as maatstaf vir die aanleer van sommige van die konsepte wat samewerking ondersteun. Hellison (1995) se vlakke vir die aanleer van verantwoordelikheid is gebruik as riglyne vir die seleksie van spesifieke onderrigstrateg ieë. Die intervensie het bestaan uit 'n tema-geërienteerde intervensieprogram wat aan twee eksperimentele groepe voorgelê is. Een groep (n = 9) het aan 'n speleprogram deelgeneem wat bestaan het uit kompeterende aktiwiteite en die ander groep (n = 9) het aan 'n speleprogram deelgeneem wat uit koëperatiewe aktiwiteite bestaan. Tema-geërienteerde lesse wat op die volgende vier konsepte wat samewerking ondersteun gebaseer is, is aan die eksperimentele groepe voorgelê: sportmanskap, kommunikasie, vertroue en verantwoordelikheid. 'n Kontrolegroep (n = 18) is ook geïdentifiseer en gebruik vir statistiese vergelyking. Om 'n konteks vir hierdie studie daar te stel is agtergrondinligting met behulp van 'n vraelys ingesamel om vas te stel hoe meisies van die skool (n = 194) gevoel het oor kompeterende spele en sport. Drie meetinstrumente is gebruik om data in te samel. Die assessering oor hoe die meisies gevoel het oor kompeterende spele en sport is voltooi deur van Gill & Deeter se (1988) Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ) gebruik te maak. Pre- en post-toetsing van die meisies in die eksperimentele groepe is ook in die SOQ ingesluit. Harter (1985) se Self-perception Profile is gebruik om die persepsies van waarneembare sosiale aanvaarding te meet. Soudan en Everett (1981) se 24-item vraelys is gebruik om enige veranderinge te bepaaloor hoe die meisies in die eksperimentele groepe die voordele van deelname aan fisieke aktiwiteit ervaar het. Resultate van die Sportoriëntasie-vraelys vir Hoërskoolmeisies (n = 194) het aangedui dat die meisies kompeterende aktiwiteite en kompetisie geniet, maar dat dit vir hulle belangriker is om persoonlike doelwitte te stel in kompeterende spele as wat dit is om te wen. Na afloop van die vergelyking tussen pre- en post-toetsdata, is daar bevind dat die tema-georienteerde kompeterende speleprogram 'n effek gehad het op die meisies se gevoeloor deelname aan spele en sport. Daar was 'n beduidende afname in hul kompeterende oriëntasie. Geen veranderinge is gemerk in hul waarneembare sosiale aanvaarding nie. 'n Beduidende toename is opgemerk in hul persepsie dat deelname aan sport en fisieke aktiwiteit sosiale voordele sowel as voordele vir die voorbereiding van 'n loopbaan/werk inhou. Die tema-georienteerde kooperatiewe speleprogram het ook 'n beduidende effek gehad op hoe die meisies oor deelname aan spele en sport voel. Die kompeterende aard en wenoriëntasie van die meisies wat aan kooperatiewe speleprogram deelgeneem het, het beduidend afgeneem. Geen veranderinge is in hul sosiale aanvaarding opgemerk nie. Daar was 'n beduidende toename in hul persepsie dat deelname aan sport en fisieke aktiwiteit gesondheids- en fiksheidsvoordele inhou. Resultate wat die groepe vergelyk, dui aan dat die waarneembare atletiese vermoë van die kompeterende groep beduidend toegeneem het in vergelyking met die kooperatiewe groep. Geen ander veranderinge is opgemerk nie. 'n Tema-georienteerde benadering tot hoe om kinders oor samewerking in 'n kompeterende en/of kooperatiewe omgewing te leer, blyk 'n effektiewe strategie te wees.

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