Oat silage in milk production systems in the Western Cape

Bangani, N. M. (Noluvuyo Muriel) (2002-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplementing oat silage (OS) with lucerne (LH) and oat hay (OH) on the production performance of lactating Jersey cows, as well as comparing the ruminal degradability of LH, OH and OS III Holstein and Jersey cows receiving a high forage diet and a high concentrate diet. In the first trial, five diets containing different combinations of OS and LH together with concentrate mixtures providing 26, 23, 20, 17 and 14% crude protein (CP) were fed to lactating Jersey cows. Lucerne hay was fed at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg DM/day while OS was fed ad libitum. Cows receiving only OS as a forage source had a lower (P<0.05) dry matter (DM) intake and produced less milk protein (P<0.05). Milk and fat yields as well as milk urea nitrogen (MUN) levels did not differ (P>0.05) between treatments. In the second trial, OS was fed with OH and a concentrate mixture containing 26% CP to lactating Jersey cows. Oat hay was fed at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg DMiday while OS was fed ad libitum. Cows that received OS together with 4 and 6kg OH, respectively had higher (P<0.05) DM intakes. Milk, fat, and protein yields as well as MUN levels did not differ (P>O.05) between treatments. The ruminal degradability of LH, OH and OS in Holstein and Jersey cows receiving (i) a high forage and (ii) a high concentrate diet was determined. The two breeds were also compared in terms of rumen pH levels, volatile fatty acids (VF A) and rumen ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations as affected by time after feeding. The ruminal degradability of freeze dried (FD), oven dried (OD) and fresh oat silage (FS) in Jersey cows receiving a high forage diet was also determined. The ruminal DM, CP and NDF degradability of LH was higher (P<O.05) than that of OH and OS in both Holstein and Jersey cows when they were fed either a high forage or a high concentrate diet. When cows were fed a high forage diet, the effective DM degradability of OS was higher (P<O.05) in Holsteins although the CP degradation rates of LH and OH were higher (P<O.05) in Jerseys. When they were fed a high concentrate diet, Jerseys had higher (P<O.05) effective DM and NDF degradabilities and higher (P<O.05) DM and NDF degradation rates in LH while Holsteins had higher (P<O.05) effective CP degradability levels than Jerseys in OS. After feeding a high forage diet, pH levels declined while VFA and NH3-N concentrations increased (P<O.05) in both breeds. Jerseys had higher rumen pH, lower (P<O.05) VFA and lower NH3-N concentrations than Holsteins throughout the study. When cows were fed a high concentrate diet, Jerseys had higher (P<O.05) pH than Holsteins. A post-feeding decline (P<O.05) in pH was observed in both breeds. Fresh oat silage had a lower (P<O.05) effective degradability and degradation rates for DM, CP and NDF in comparison to FD and OD oat silage. The DM, CP and NDF degradation rates, as well as effective NDF degradability were higher (P<O.05) for FD silage, but effective DM and CP degradabilities were higher (P<O.05) for OD oat silage. It was concluded that on an oat silage diet, lactating Jersey cows should receive a minimum of 2kg LH or 4 to 6kg oat hay together with ad libitum OS to improve DM intake. When cows were fed a high concentrate diet, the ruminal degradability appeared to be superior in Jerseys than Holsteins. Jerseys also had higher rumen pH levels lower VFA and NH3-N concentrations than Holsteins. Feeding interval affects the rumen environment, pH declines while VF A and NH3-N concentrations increased.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die effek van die aanvulling van hawerkuilvoer met lusemhooi (LH) en hawerhooi (HH) op die melkproduksie van Jerseykoeie te bepaal. Hiermee saam is die rumen degradeerbaarheid van hawerkuilvoer en lusemhooi ondersoek in Jersey en Holsteinkoeie wat 'n hoe-ruvoer en 'n hoe-kragvoer gebaseerde dieet ontvang het. In die eerste proef is vyf diete met verskillende peile van hawerkuilvoer en lusernhooi saam met kragvoere van verskillende ruproteienpeile (26, 23, 20, 17 en 14% RP) aan 10 lakterende Jerseykoeie gevoer. Hawerkuilvoer is ad libitum voorsien en lusemhooi is teen vlakke van 0, 2, 4,6 en Skg droemateriaal (DM) per dag gevoer. Die DM-inname en melkproteienproduksie van koeie wat hawerkuilvoer as die enigste ruvoerbron ontvang het, was laer (P<0.05) as ander ruvoerkombinasies. Die melk- en vetproduksie, asook melk-ureumstikstofpeile het nie tussen behandelings verskil nie (P>0.05). In die tweede proef is hawerkuilvoer saam met hawerhooi (soortgelyk as Proef 1) gevoer. Die kragvoerkomponent van al die ruvoerkombinasies het 26% RP bevat. Die koeie wat hawerkuilvoer en 4 of 6kg hawerhooi as ruvoere ontvang het, het hoer (P<O.05) droemateriaalinnames gehad. Melk, vet en proteienproduksie asook melk-ureumstikstofpeile het nie tussen ruvoerkombinasies verskil nie (P>O.05). Die rumendegradeerbaarheid van lusemhooi, hawerhooi en hawerkuilvoer is bepaal in Holstein en Jerseykoeie wat (i) 'n hoe ruvoer- en (ii) 'n hoe kragvoerdieet ontvang het. Die rumen pH, vlugtige vetsuur en rumen-ammoniakkonsentrasies, soos beinvloed deur tyd na voeding, is ook tussen rasse vergelyk. Die rumendegradeerbaarheid van vars, oondgedroogde en vriesgedroogde hawerkuilvoer is ook bepaal. Die rumen DM, RP en NDF degradeerbaarhede van lusemhooi was hoer (P<O.05) as by hawerhooi en hawerkuilvoer in beide Holstein en Jerseykoeie wat (i) 'n hoe ruvoer- en (ii) 'n hoe kragvoerdieet ontvang het. Op 'n hoe ruvoerdieet, was effektiewe DM degradeerbaarheid van hawerkuilvoer by Holsteins hoer (P<O.05) as by Jerseys. Jerseykoeie het egter 'n hoer (P<O.05) RP degradeerbaarheidstempo van lusemhooi en hawerhooi gehad. Jerseykoeie op 'n hoe kragvoerdieet, het hoer (P<O.05) effektiewe DM en NDF degradeerbaarhede getoon. Hulle het egter 'n laer (P<O.05) effektiewe ruprotein (RP) degradeerbaarheid by hawerkuilvoer as Friese gehad. Jerseykoeie op lusemhooi het ook 'n hoer (P<O.05) DM en NDF degradeerbaarheidstempo getoon. Jerseykoeie wat 'n hoe ruvoerdieet ontvang het, het 'n hoer (P<O.05) rumen- pH en laer (P<O.05) vlugtige vetsuur- en rumen-ammoniak konsentrasies as Holsteinkoeie gehad. Jerseykoeie wat 'n hoe kragvoerdieet ontvang het, het ook 'n hoer (P<O.05) rumen- pH as Holsteinkoeie gehad. By al die koeie is gevind dat rumen- pH na voeding afgeneem het (P<O.05). Vlugtige vetsuur- en rumen-ammoniakkonsentrasies was laag voor voeding en het daama toegeneem (P<O.05). Vars hawerkuilvoer het laer (P<O.05) effektiewe DM, RP en NDF degradeerbaarhede en degradeerbaarheidstempo's as oond- en vriesgedroogde hawerkuilvoer gehad. Die vriesgedroogde kuilvoer het hoer (P<O.05) DM, RP en NDF degradeerbaarheidstempo's sowel as effektiewe NDF degradeerbaarhede gehad. Oondgedroogde kuilvoer het daarinteen hoer (P<O.05) effektiewe DM en RP degradeerbaarhede gehad. Die gevolgtrekking is gemaak dat lakterende Jerseykoeie ten minste 2kg lusemhooi of 4- 6kg hawerhooi per dag moet ontvang wanneer hulle hawerkuilvoer as ruvoerbron ontvang. Op 'n hoe kragvoerdieet, het dit gebleik dat die rumendegradeerbaarheid van vesel by Jerseys beter is as by Holsteins. Die rumen- pH is hoog voor voeding, maar dit neem af nadat die koeie gevreet het. Die rumen- pH van Jerseys was hoer as by Holsteins. Die vlugtige vetsure en rumen-ammoniakkonsentrasies blyk laag te wees voor voeding en neem daama toe. Konsentrasies was hoer by Holstein as by Jerseys.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52970
This item appears in the following collections: