'n Ondersoek na die rol van strukturele groepfaktore en groepprosesse met betrekking tot bestuurspaninnoverendheid

Botha, S. (Sonja) (2002-03)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Innovation and creativity are established research areas but both are relatively new research areas within the field of organisational psychology. Early research on innovation and creativity were primarily the focus area of academics in related social sciences disciplines. Research on innovation and creativity was integrated with the orientations and perspectives of organisational psychologists over a period of time. In other words the development and identification of innovation as a success factor of the work environment is something that took place over decades. Changes in the competitive environment over the last few decades contributed to the increasing interest in the concept of innovation. Today managers recognise innovation as a necessity that needs to be managed and developed. Three levels of analyses (the individual, group and organisation) can be identified in the innovation literature. Until recently researchers focused primarily on the individual and the organisation as units of analysis. As a results of this, research that focuses on the individual and the organisation are quite comprehensive compared to studies that focus on the group as a unit of analysis. The utilisation of teams have increased in organisations, but our knowledge of the factors and dimensions that determine group innovation are still restricted. The complex nature of group innovation could perhaps be a contributing factor in terms of the amount of research studies that have been done on group innovation. It is especially in this regard that this study sets out to thoroughly investigate existing group innovation literature and to combine this with an investigation into the possible contributions of related social psychological research (for example group decision making, intragroup conflict and creative problem solving) to the innovation literature. Each one of the three units of analysis (individual, group and organisation) has a unique impact on group innovation, but not one of them explains exclusively the innovativeness of a team. An interdependent relationship exists between these factors. This stresses the complexity of the concept and as a result of this, researchers are encouraged to investigate the possible contributions of related social psychological themes to the innovation research and literature. In this regard this study focused extensively on a input, process and output model of group innovation by West and Anderson (1996) to determine to what extend some of the aspects of the model explained the innovativeness of a group. This is a comprehensive model and for the purposes of this study only certain aspects of the model were included in the research process. The size of the team and team tenure were the two input elements that were included in the study. The process elements of the model includes clarity and commitment to team objectives, participation, task orientation and support for innovation. In terms of the output aspects of the model the focus was on the following: how radical, effective, new and extensive the innovation is, as well as the number of innovations per team. The results of the study indicate that there are a relationship between the variables of West and Anderson's input, process and output model (1996) and the innovativeness of the team. The results of this study indicate that the model by West and Anderson is a valuable contribution to the research literature on group innovation behaviour. Although group innovation has not been researched extensively, it seems that group innovation is starting to make an impact on the organisational psychology domain and that it will be a central aspect of the research agenda of organisational psychologists in future. If we are able to establish a sound theoretical basis organisations will be able to understand and predict group innovation behaviour. It can be concluded that this study made a contribution to the research literature on group innovation behaviour in terms of an awareness of the impact and necessity of innovation in today's work environment, and also in extending the existing knowledge base of group innovation behaviour

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Alhoewel innovasie al VIr 'n geruime tyd as navorsingsdomein gevestig IS, het organisasiesielkundiges eers redelik onlangs aan innovasie en kreatiwiteit begin aandag skenk. Een van die redes waarom dit so lank geneem het voordat innovasie as 'n waardige wetenskaplike navorsingsonderwerp besef was, was die feit dat vroeëre navorsing oor hierdie onderwerp deur akademici in ander sosiaal wetenskaplike dissiplines uitgevoer was. Die integrering van sodanige navorsing met organisasiesielkundiges se perspektiewe en oriëntasies het skynbaar slegs met verloop van tyd plaasgevind. Die ontwikkeling van innovasie as 'n verskynsel van die werksomgewing het dus stelselmatig oor dekades heen plaasgevind. Die impak van omgewingsveranderinge op organisasies het ook oor die afgelope paar dekades beduidende belangstelling ten opsigte van innovasie ontsluit. Innovasie, as 'n komponent van organisatoriese-kompeterendheid en -effektiwiteit, is vandag 'n noodsaaklikheid wat toenemend deur hedendaagse bedryfsleiers ondersteun en bestuur word. Binne die werksomgewing kom innovasie op drie verskillende vlakke (die individu, die groep en die organisasie) voor. Tot dusver het innovasienavorsers egter in hoofsaak op die individu en organisasie as ontledingseenheid gefokus. Navorsing wat die individu of organisasie as ontledingseenheid gebruik, is volop in vergelyking met studies wat die groep as ontledingseenheid gebruik. Met ander woorde, alhoewel die gebruikmaking van spanne in organisasies toeneem, is ons kennis van die faktore en dimensies wat spaninnoverendheid bepaal, steeds beperk. Die beperkte teoretiese basis van bestaande groepinnovasienavorsing kan deels aan die omvangryke en komplekse aard van die verskynsel toegeskryf word. Dit is juis in hierdie opsig dat hierdie studie dit ten doel gestel het om bestaande groepinnovasieliteratuur deeglik te ondersoek en om vas te stel tot watter mate verwante sosiaal-sielkundige navorsing (onder andere groepbesluitneming, intragroepkonflik en kreatiewe probleemoplossing) 'n bydrae tot die innovasieliteratuur kan lewer. Elk van die drie ontledingsvlakke (individu, groep, organisasie) het 'n unieke effek op die innoverendheid van 'n span, maar nie een van hierdie kategorieë verklaar uitsluitlik die innoverendheid van 'n span nie. Die interafhanklike verhouding van hierdie faktore beklemtoon die kompleksiteit van die verskynsel en dit moedig toekomstige navorsers aan om die nuttige bydraes van verwante sosiaal-sielkundige temas te ondersoek. In hierdie verband is daar ook breedvoerig gebruik gemaak van 'n inset, proses en uitset model van groepinnoverendheid deur West en Anderson (1996), ten einde vas te stel tot watter mate sekere aspekte van die model die innoverendheid van 'n span voorspel. Vanweë die omvangrykheid van die model is slegs sekere veranderlikes in die navorsing ingesluit. In terme van die insette is daar op grootte en spandienstydperk gefokus. Die proses faset van die model verwys na die duidelikheid en verbondenheid tot doelwitte, deelname, taakoriëntasie en ondersteuning vir innovasie. Ten opsigte van die uitset faset van die model is daar op die volgende aspekte gefokus: die radikaalheid, omvangrykheid, nuutheid en effektiwiteit van die innovasie asook die getal innovasie items binne die groep. Die resultate van die studie dui daarop dat daar wel 'n verband tussen hierdie veranderlikes van West en Anderson (1996) se model en die innoverendheid van groepe bestaan. Hierdie model van groepinnoverendheid blyk vanuit die resultate van hierdie studie, en vorige studies, nuttig te wees vir die bestudering van groepinnovasiegedrag. Alhoewel daar tot dusver min lig gewerp is op die faktore wat groepinnoverendheid bepaal, wil dit voorkom asof groepinnovasienavorsing 'n sentrale faset van die organisasiesielkunde se navorsingsagenda in die toekoms sal wees. Die vestiging en uitbreiding van 'n teoretiese basis salorganisasies in staat stelom die innovasiegedrag van spanne beter te verstaan en te voorspel. Ten slotte kan dit vermeld word dat hierdie studie In bydrae gelewer het tot groepinnovasiegedrag, nie net in terme van 'n bewusmaking van die impak en noodsaaklikheid van innovasie in die hedendaagse werksomgewing nie, maar ook in terme van die uitbreiding van die bestaande kennisbasis oor groepinnovasiegedrag.

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