Nominal inflectional categories of Tshivenda

Nekhumbe, Mudivhani Gilbert (2002-12)

Thesis (DLitt)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study explores the four nominal inflectional categories which are identified in morphology, i.e. case, noun class, agreement and number in Tshiven~a. This study also examines Determiner Phrase, enclitics and definiteness with regard to Tshivenc1a noun phrases. Chapter one is the introduction of this study. It states the aim of the study which is, firstly, to establish whether case, noun class, agreement and number occur in Tshivencla, and secondly, to examine the form, syntactic distribution and semantics of these categories in Tshiven~a. This chapter also gives the morphological assumptions of the model of lexememorpheme base morphology by Beard (1995) and Aronoff (1994). The theory of lexical semantics of Pustejovsky (1996) and the Minimalist program of Chomsky (1995) are also discussed. Chapter two examines the Determiner Phrase in Tshiven~a. It concentrates on the structure of the OP in Tshivenda. Attention has been 41\ given to the functional categories within the OP such as DET and Agr as well as the various nominal modifiers within the OP. Chapter three explores Case in Tshiven~a. In Tshiven9_a there are seven cases, i.e. nominative, accusative, instrumental, locative, genitive, dative and vocative. This chapter concentrates on the assignment of these cases and their grammatical functions. Chapter four explores the noun class in Tshivenda. It examines the form 1\ and the contribution of the meaning of the noun class prefixes. The morphological structure of the Tshivenda noun is taken as the framework 1\ for this analysis. It has been found that Tshivend,a.. has seventeen noun classes which are still active in this language. These noun class prefixes have 24 different semantic features which contribute to the meaning of the noun. Chapter five discusses agreement and number in Tshivenda. In the case A. of agreement it has been found that it is both dependent and independent of noun class. Subjectival and objectival agreement appear as two functional categories within the inflection phrase. Specific attention has also been given to existential agreement, sentential pronouns, the infinitive as well as problems with agreement with coordinated NPs. Certain cases have also been highlighted where no agreement appears. Lastly, it has been shown that number is not an inflectional category in Tshivenda, but it A is a semantic category. Chapter six is concemed with definiteness in the interpretation of the noun in Tshivenda. In the first place, it has been shown in which cases a noun 1\ phrase may be interpreted as definite or indefinite. Secondly, the contribution of the nominal modifiers with regard to the definiteness of the noun phrase has been investigated. Lastly, it has been shown that proper names have to be interpreted as definite. Chapter seven investigated the three enclitics in Tshivenda, i.e. de, shu '" A and vho. Their meaning and distribution have been explored with regard to their presence on nouns, nominal modifiers and verbs. The distribution of these three enclitics is dependent on their meaning. The enclitic de which A refers to quantifiers may not appear on verbs. Enclitics which are interrogative in nature such as d,..e and shu may not appear with interrogative nominal modifiers.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek die vier nominale infleksie kategorieë wat in die morfologie geïdentifiseer is nl. naamval, naamwoordklas, klasooreenstemming en getal in Tshivenqa. Hierdie studie gee ook aandag aan Bepalersfrase, enklitieke en bepaaldheid m.b.t. die Tshiven2a naamwoordgroepe. Hoofstuk een is die inleiding tot die studie. Dit gee die doelstellings van die studie: eerstens moet vasgestel word of naamval, naamwoordklas, klasooreenstemming en getal in Tshivenda voorkom, en tweedens moet die A vorm, sintaktiese distribusie en semantiek van hierdie kategorieë in Tshivenda bepaal word. Hierdie hoofstuk gee ook aandag aan die A morfologiese aannames van die lekseem-morfeem morfologie van Beard (1995) en Aronoff (1994). Die teorie van leksikale semantiek van Pustejovsky (1996) word ook bespreek sowel as die Minimalistiese program in sintaksis van Chomsky (1995). Hoofstuk twee ondersoek die Bepalersfrase in Tshivenda. Dit konsentreer A veralop die struktuur van die Bepalersfrase in Tshivenda. Aandag is veral A gegee aan die funksionele kategorieë binne die Bepalersfrase soos die bepaler en klasooreenstemming asook die verskillende nominale bepalers in die Bepalersfrase. Hoofstuk drie handeloor die naamval in Tshivenda. Sewe naamvalle is in A Tshivend,.a. onderskei nl. nominatief, akkusatief, instrument, lokatief, genitief, datief en vokatief. Hierdie hoofstuk konsentreer op die toekenning van hierdie naamvalle en hulle grammatikale funksies. Hoofstuk vier ondersoek die naamwoordklas in Tshivend,a.. Dit gee veral aandag aan die vorm van die naamwoordprefikse sowel as die bydrae van hierdie prefikse tot die betekenis van die naamwoord in Tshivenda. Hierdie '" analise is gedoen binne 'n raamwerk van die morfologiese struktuur van die naamwoord. Daar is gevind dat Tshivend,a. nog sewentien naamwoordklasse het wat aktief in die taal is. Daarby kon 24 verskillende betekeniskenmerke van hierdie naamwoordprefikse bepaal word. Hoofstuk vyf bespreek klasooreenstemming en getal in Tshivenda. In die A geval van klasooreenstemming is gevind dat dit beide afhanklik en onafhanklik van naamwoordklas is. Klasooreenstemming ten opsigte van die onderwerp en voorwerp is twee funksionele kategorieë binne die infleksiefrase. Verder is spesiale aandag gegee aan eksistensie, sinsvoomaamwoorde, die infinitief sowel as neweskikkende naamwoordgroepe. Daar is ook gevalle aangedui waarin geen klasooreensteming voorkom. Getal is 'n semantiese kategorie in Tshivenda " maar nie' infleksie kategorie nie. Hoofstuk ses handeloor bepaaldheid ten opsigte van die interpretasie van die naamwoord in Tshivend,a.. In die eerste plek is aangedui in welke gevalle naamwoordgroepe bepaald of onbepaald geïnterpreteer kan word, en tweedens is aandag gegee aan die bydrae van nominale bepalers ten opsigte van die bepaaldheid van die naamwoordgroep. Laastens is gewys op die voorkoms van bepaaldheid by eiename. Hoofstuk sewe het die drie enklitieke in Tshivenda ondersoek nl. de, shu ,. J\ en vho. Hul betekenis en distribusie is nagegaan ten opsigte van hul voorkoms by naamwoorde, nominale bepalers asook werkwoorde. Die distribusie van hierdie drie enklitieke is duidelik afhanklik van hul betekenis. So kan de wat verwys na kwantifiseerders bv. nie saam met werkwoorde optree n"ie. Enklitieke wat interprogatief van aard is soos d,..e en shu kan ook dus nie saam met interrogatiewe nominale bepalers voorkom nie.

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