Gemeenskapsgebaseerde teater : 'n Suid-Afrikaans georienteerde ondersoek

Brand, Amelda (2002-12)

Thesis (MDram)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Creative expression is influenced by social structures and the political climate of the day. Therefore theatre as a social structure has been directly influenced by colonialism and apartheid. Restricting legislation had a limiting influence on cultural activities and freedom of creative expression. The following terms all refer to community based theatre activities: Community Theatre, Popular Theatre, Theatre for Development, People's Theatre and sometimes Workshop Theatre. Community theatre in post-colonial African countries take place in locations easily accessible to the communities it serves. These activities make use of creative techniques that the target communities can identify with. The subject-matter is generally relevant and is therefore accessible. The conscientisation- and mobilisation-potential of community theatre become evident in post-colonial African countries. The uses of this term in South Africa is closely connected with the above, but the applications in practice are more diverse because of a longer period of Western influence. Popular Theatre encapsulates theatre activities focussing on mass-appeal and popular entertainment as well as theatre activities by and for marginalised communities. "Popular Theatre" activities that take place within marginalised communities make use of collective creative approaches that are aimed at community conscientisation and mobilisation. Like Community Theate and Popular Theatre, Theatre for Development is theatre for, by and of the people (marginalised people, ordinary workers and the unemployed). Certain Theatre for Development projects approach the target communities with pre-planned agendas and creative subject-matter. Theatre for Development, like other community based theatre forms, are aimed at conscientisation, mobilisation and organisation to encourage political liberation and promote a higher standard ofliving. Workshop Theatre encourages people to express themselves by using a democratic and collective creative approach. These characteristics are also present in the previously mentioned theatre forms. Community Theatre, Popular Theatre and Theatre for Development can all be categorised as community based theatre and the terms are interchangable in pracitce.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Politieke omstandighede en daaglikse gebeure beïnvloed die keuse van uitdrukkingsvorme. Kolonialisme en veral die apartheidsbeleid in Suid-Afrika het sosiale strukture, waaronder teater, beïnvloed. Wetgewing en beperkte infrastruktuur het kulturele aktiwiteite, kreatiewe uitdrukking en kulturele vloei beperk. Gemeenskapsgebaseerde teateraktiwiteite in Suid-Afrika word meestal benoem met die volgende terme: Gemeenskapsteater, Populêre Teater, Teater vir Ontwikkeling, "People's Theatre", asook Werkswinkelteater wat in Suid-Afrika soms sosio-polities van aard is. Gemeenskapsteater in post-koloniale Afrika-lande is ten opsigte van vorm en inhoud vir die teikengemeenskap toeganklik en vind plaas in maklik bereikbare ruimtes. Die bewusmakings- en mobiliseringspotensiaal van Gemeenskapsteater kom sterk na vore in post-koloniale Afrika-lande. Die gebruike van die term "Gemeenskapsteater" in Suid- Afrika sluit by bogenoemde aan, maar het ook meer diverse toepassings wat by ontwikkelde lande se beskouings aansluit. Populêre Teater ondervang teateraktiwiteite wat fokus op massa-aanhang, sowel as teateraktiwiteite wat gemik is op gemarginaliseerdes. In laasgenoemde konteks is dit gerig op bemagtiging en word 'n kollektiewe skeppingsproses gebruik. Teater vir Ontwikkeling is soos Gemeenskapsteater en Populêre Teater, teater vir, deur en van "die mense" (gemarginaliseerdes, massa gewone werkers en werkloses). Anders as Gemeenskapsteater kan daar 'n voorafopgestelde agenda of gekose onderwerp wees. Soos ander gemeenskapsgebaseerde teater strewe dit na bewusmaking, mobilisasie en organisasie ter wille van bevryding en verhoogde lewensstandaarde in gemarginaliseerde gemeenskappe. Werkswinkelteater het 'n demokratiese en kollektiewe skeppingsproses wat selfvertroue en die vermoë tot uitdrukking aanmoedig. Dit is 'n eienskap wat ook teenwoordig is in die voorafgenoemde teatervorme. Teateraktiwiteite wat met die terme Gemeenskapsteater, Populêre Teater en Teater vir Ontwikkeling benoem word, kan gekatagoriseer word as gemeenskapsgebaseerde teater en is dikwels in die praktyk omruilbaar.

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