Die psigososiale ontwikkeling van graad 8-seuns volgens Erikson se psigososiale ontwikkelingsmodel

Viljoen, Johannes Jacobus (2002-12)

Thesis (MEdPsych)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The primary goal with this research project was to investigate the psychosocial development of a group grade 8 boys before adolescence in terms of the four developmental crisis according to Eriksson's' theory. The study proceeded through two phases. A questionnaire investigation with a larger study group (N=221) was done in phase 1, and this (quantitative) data was analysed. Phase 2 comprised a further investigation, which took place 2 years later. Based on the results of the questionnaire investigation, a small group (N=ll) experiencing a potencial low self-consciousness was identified and focus group interviews were conducted with them. The researcher made the assumption that individuals' experiences of the first four stages of Erikson's psychosocial developmental model form the basis for later identity development during adolescence, as well as continuing personality development. Current research indicates that the total scale and two of the sub-scales ('Industry vs Inferiority' and 'Autonomy vs Shame') show sufficient reliability (Alpha-coefficients are greater than 0.70). The distributions of the sub-scales were in all cases skew to the left, which indicate that most of the scores for each sub-scale are closer to the maximum value than the minimum value. A negative measure of skewness is reported. All the sub-scales relate significantly to each other (p < 0.01). Therefore, one can conclude with relative certainty that this scale is valid. Age does not correlate significantly with any of the sub-scales (p > 0.05 in all cases), but a significant correlation was not expected given the small age variance. From the qualitative responses of phase 2 it appeared that the present level of expectations, which learners experience, is not appropriate. They would benefit from more positive feedback on their successes. The responses reflect that feedback is not always constructive, nor given in a positive, non-judgemental spirit.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die primêre doel met hierdie navorsingsprojek is om ondersoek in te stel na psigososiale ontwikkeling voor adolessensie by 'n groep graad 8-seuns in terme van die eerste vier ontwikkelingskrisisse volgens Erikson se teorie. Die ondersoek het in twee fases verloop. In Fase 1 is 'n vraelysondersoek met 'n groter ondersoekgroep (N=221) gedoen, en hierdie (kwantitatiewe) data is verwerk. Fase 2 het twee jaar later uit 'n verdere ondersoek bestaan. vraelysondersoek verkry is, Op grond van die resultate wat uit die is 'n klein ondersoekgroep (N=ll) geïdentifiseer wat 'n lae fokusgroeponderhoude gevoer is. selfbelewing ervaar, met wie Die ondersoeker het van die veronderstelling uitgegaan dat individue se belewing van die eerste vier fases van Erikson se psigososiale ontwikkelingsmodel die basis vorm vir latere identiteitsontwikkeling tydens adolessensie asook vir verdere persoonlikheidsontwikkeling. Die huidige navorsing dui daarop dat die totale skaal en twee van die subskale ('Arbeidsaamheid vs Minderwaardigheid' en 'Outonomie vs Skaamte') oor voldoende betroubaarheid beskik (Alfa-koëffisiënte is groter as 0.70). Die verspreiding van die subskaaltellings is in alle gevalle skeef na links, wat beteken dat die meerderheid tellings vir elke subskaal nader aan die maksimumwaarde as aan die minimumwaarde lê. 'n Negatiewe maatstaf van skeefheid word gerapporteer. AI die subskale hou beduidend met mekaar verband (p < 0.01). Dus kan daar met redelike sekerheid die gevolgtrekking gemaak word dat hierdie skaal geldig is. Ouderdom hou nie beduidend verband met enige van die subskale nie (p > 0.05 in alle gevalle), maar 'n beduidende korrelasie is nie verwag nie as gevolg van die klein ouderdomsvariansie. Vanuit Fase 2 se kwalitatiewe response wil dit voorkom asof die leerders se huidige vlak van uitdagings wat aan hulle gestel word nie toepaslik is nie. Hulle sou kon baat vind by meer positiewe terugvoer ten opsigte van hul suksesse. Terugvoer blyk uit die response nie altyd konstruktief en in 'n positiewe, nie-veroordelende gees te wees nie.

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