Die geskiedenis van die trustmaatskappye en eksekuteurskamers van Boland Bank Beperk tot 1971

Ehlers, Anton (2002-03)

Dissertation (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The history of the trust companies and boards of executors of Boland Bank Limited represents a case study of the process through which these rural institutions, as part of the broader trust movement in South Africa, established themselves as an integral and respected part of the local financial and social structure of the communities in which they operated. It also represents a case study of the pressures to which these local rural trust companies were subjected by the changing South African financial environment of the 20th century and of the way they reacted to absorb and counter these pressures. Their reactions and counter-measures were attempts, on the one hand, to hold on to and promote, and on the other hand, to get rid of and discard their pasts. The history of Boland Bank Limited to 1971 represents a case study of the trials and tnbulations; the successes and failures of this process. Paarl African Trust Company Limited (PAT) and African Mutual Trust and Assurance Company Limited (AMT), the two leading role players in the establishment of Boland Bank Limited, was founded in 1900 as a result of the anti- British feelings generated among a section of the Afrikaners in the Cape Colony during the Anglo Boer War. These feelings of nationalism manifested in the Afrikaners' aspiration towards greater economic self-reliance which in the case of PAT and AMT led to the establishment of two Afrikaner-controlled local rural trust companies. These two institutions laid the foundation of a mainly Cape based tradition oflocal rural trust companies with a predominantly Afrikaans character. In the first half of the 20th century these institutions established themselves as dynamic local rural financial institutions serving the financial needs of the predominantly agricultural economies in which they functioned. As an integral part of their local communities, they were respected as stabilizing economic and social agents, -a respect demonstrated by the local inhabitants refering to these institutions as "my Kamer" (my Board). The changed nature of the economic system and climate of the post war (Second World War) period in tandem with the tendency towards stricter state control over the monetary and financial system and institutions, pressurized small local :financial institutions like trust companies and boards of executors to show a profit. In this regard PAT and AMT were no exception and together with other similar trust companies were in danger of becoming outdated financialnational monuments. Against this background PAT and AMT took the lead in the early sixties in a successful amalgamation initiative which eventually culminated in the formation of Boland Bank Limited. This process included 17 institutions of which 16 were local rural trust companies and boards of executors and created the potential for regaining their lost dynamic nature. These dynamics would eventually carry them into the 21st century.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die geskiedenis van die trustmaatskappye en eksekuteurskamers van Boland Bank Beperk verteenwoordig 'n gevallestudie van die proses waardeur die plattelandse instellings as deel van die breer trustbeweging in Suid-Afrika hulself as 'n integrale en gerespekteerde deel van die plaaslike finansiele en sosiale struktuur van die gemeenskappe waarbinne hulle opgetree het, gevestig het. Dit verteenwoordig ook 'n gevallestudie van die druk waaraan die veranderende Suid-Afrikaanse finansiele omgewing van die 20ste eeu die plaaslike plattelandse trustmaatskappye onderwerp het en die wyse waarop hulle gereageer het in 'n poging om die druk te absorbeer en te opponeer. Hulle reaksies en teenmaatreels was 'n mengsel van pogings om enersyds die status quo ten opsigte van hulle manier van dink en doen te handhaaf en andersyds dit te verwerp of van ontslae te raak. Die geskiedenis van Boland Bank tot 1971 verteenwoordig 'n gevallestudie van die ervaringe en wedervaringe, die suksesse en ook die mislukkings van die proses. Paarl African Trust Company Limited (PAT) en die African Mutual Trust and Assurance Company Limited (AMT) , die twee hoofspelers in die daarstelling van Boland Bank Beperk, is in 1900 gestig as die resultaat van die anti-Britse gevoel wat deur die Anglo-Boereoorlog onder 'n deel van die Afrikaners in die Kaapkolonie gegenereer is. Hierdie gevoel van nasionalisme het gemanifesteer in die Afrikaners se strewe na groter ekonomiese selfstandigheid wat in die geval van PAT en AMT gelei het tot die stigting van twee Afrikanerbeheerde plaaslike plattelandse trustmaatskappye. Die twee instellings het die grondslag van 'n hoofsaaklik Kaaps gebaseerde tradisie van plaaslike plattelandse trustmaatskappye en eksekuteurskamers met 'n oorwegende Afrikaanse karakter gele. In die eerste helfte van die 20ste eeu het die instellings hulself as dinamiese plaaslike plattelandse finansiele instellings gevestig, wat voorsien het in die finansiele behoeftes van die oorheersend primere landbou-ekonomie waarbinne hulle gefunksioneer het. As 'n integrale deel van hulle plaaslike gemeenskappe is bulle as stabiliserende ekonomiese en sosiale agente gerespekteer. Dit was 'n respek wat gedemonstreer is deur die plaaslike inwoners se verwysing na die instellings as "my Kamer". Die veranderde aard van die ekonomiese stelsel en klimaat van die naoorlogse (Tweede Wereldoorlog) periode in tandem met die tendens van strenger staatsbeheer oor die monetere en finansiele stelsel en instellings het druk geplaas op die windsgewendheid van klein plaaslike finansiele instellings soos trustmaatskappye en eksekuteurskamers. In die verband was PAT en AMT geen uitsondering nie en het hulIe saam met ander soortgelyke trustmaatskappye die gevaar geloop om oudmodiese finansiele nasionale monumente te word. Teen hierdie agtergrond het PAT en AMT in die vroee sestigerjare die leiding geneem in 'n suksesvolle amalgamasie-inisiatief wat uiteindelik in die stigting van Boland Bank Beperk gekulmineer het. In die proses is 17 instellings, waarvan 16 plaaslike plattelandse trustmaatskappye en eksekuteurskamers was, ingesluit en daardeur die potensiaal geskep om hulle verlore dinamika te herwin, Dit was 'n dinamika wat hulle uiteindelik tot in die 21ste eeu sou dra.

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