A spatial decision support system for pipe break susceptibility analysis and impact assessment of municipal water distribution systems

Sinske, Stefan (Stefan Andreas) (2002-03)

Dissertation (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Municipal water distribution maintenance is very important for sustainable urban development. Water pipe breaks result not only in a disruption in service but also in significant loss of water, which otherwise could have been sold to the consumer. In countries where water is scarce, such as South Africa, water losses can be detrimental to the living standard of people. Water pipe breaks can furthermore cause extensive damage to nearby lower-lying properties. Existing decision support systems available in the field of water distribution system maintenance are mainly focused on leak detection and pipe rehabilitation/replacement strategy. These existing systems, however, do not address the actual causes of pipe breaks and pipe break impact is also not supported. The aim of this research is to develop a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pipe break susceptibility analysis and impact assessment. The engineer (or public works administrator) can apply the SDSS to model the complex pipe break phenomena in the municipal water distribution system. The SDSS can identify pipes susceptible to breaking and pipes with potentially high break impact as far as water loss and damage caused to nearby property are concerned. This combined pipe break susceptibility analysis and potential impact assessment should promote more informed decision-making on preventative maintenance measures to be taken and their prioritisation. The dissertation consists offive parts. In the first part (Chapters 1-4) theories on information systems, fuzzy logic, object-oriented modelling, Unified Modelling Language (UML) and pipe break causes are presented. This literature review provides a basis on which the SDSS for pipe break susceptibility analysis and impact assessment can be developed. In the second part (Chapter 5) the general user requirements and design of the SDSS are given. The general SDSS architecture, the general system functionality and the user interface are described and designed in this part of the dissertation. The third part (Chapter 6) provides the detailed user requirements and design of the subsystems of the SDSS. Specialised functionality for pipe break susceptibility analysis and impact assessment is added to the general design of the SDSS. Subsystems are designed for analysing the pipe break susceptibility due to age, air-pocket formation and tree-root attack. Pipe break impact assessment subsystems are also designed for assessing water loss and potential damage caused to nearby property. Finally, a combined analysis subsystem is designed for combined pipe break susceptibility analysis and impact assessment. In the fourth part (Chapter 7), the SDSS is applied to the water distribution system of the Paarl Municipality to identify pipes in the network that have both high break susceptibility and also high break impact. The pipe break susceptibility analysis model of the SDSS is also tested and calibrated by comparing the model results with actual pipe break occurrence data of the study area. The final chapter (Chapter 8) contains the summary and recommendations regarding the functionality of the newly developed SDSS.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die instandhouding van munisipale waterverspreidingstelsels is uiters belangrik vir volhoubare stedelike ontwikkeling. Waterpypbreuke lei nie alleenlik tot onderbreking in diensverskaffing nie, maar ook tot beduidende waterverlies en verlies aan inkomste uit waterverkope. In lande waar water skaars is, soos in Suid-Afrika, kan waterverliese die lewenstandaard van die bevolking nadelig beïnvloed. Waterpypbreuke kan ook groot skade aan naby-geleë laag-liggende eiendomme aanrig. Besluitnemingstelsels tans beskikbaar op die gebied van instandhouding van waterverspreidingstelsels is hoofsaaklik gerig op lekkasie-opsporing en pyprehabilitasie- en pypvervangingstrategieë. Hierdie bestaande stelsels spreek egter nie die eintlike oorsake van pypbreuke aan nie, daar word ook nie op die impak van pypbreuke ingegaan nie. Die doelwit van hierdie navorsing is om 'n ruimtelike besluitnemingstelsel (RBS) - vir pypbreuk-risiko-analise en impakberaming te ontwikkel. Die ingenieur (of stelselbestuurder) kan met behulp van die RBS die komplekse pypbreukverskynsel in 'n munisipale waterverspreidingstelsel modelleer. Die RBS kan pype met hoë breek-potensiaal identifiseer asook pype wat, indien dit breek, groot waterverlies of skade aan naby-geleë eiendomme sal veroorsaak. Hierdie gekombineerde pypbreuk-risiko-analise en impakberaming behoort meer oordeelkundige besluitneming te bevorder deur beter prioritisering van voorkomende instandhoudingsmaatreëls en die uitvoering daarvan. Die proefskrif bestaan uit vyf dele. In die eerste deel (Hoofstukke 1-4) word die teorieë oor inligtingstelsels, 'fuzzy logic', objek-georiënteerde modellering, 'unified modelling language (UML)' en die oorsake van pypbreuke behandel. Hierdie literatuurstudie skep die basis waaruit die RBS vir pypbreukrisikobepaling en impakberaming ontwikkel sal word. In die tweede deel (Hoofstuk 5) word die algemene gebruikersbehoeftes en die ontwerp van die RBS uiteengesit. Die algemene RBS struktuur en die gebruikerskoppelvlak word in hierdie deel van die proefskrif beskryf en ontwerp. In die derde deel (Hoofstuk 6) word die gedetailleerde gebruikersbehoeftes en die ontwerp van die substelsels van die RBS uiteengesit. Gespesialiseerde funksionaliteit vir pypbreuk-risikobepaling en impakberaming is tot die algemene ontwerp van die RBS bygevoeg. Substelsels is ontwerp vir die ontleding van pypbreuk-risiko as gevolg van ouderdom, lugblaas-vorming en boomwortelaanval. Substelsels vir impakberaming is ook ontwerp om waterverlies en potensiële skade aan eiendomme vas te stel. Ten slotte word 'n gekombineerde ontledingsubstelsel vir gekombineerde pypbreuk-risikobepaling en impakberaming opgestel. In die vierde deel (Hoofstuk 7) word die RBS toegepas op die waterverspreidingstelsel van die Paarlse munisipaliteit om pype uit te ken wat beide 'n hoë breuk-risiko en 'n hoë breuk-impak bevat. Die pypbreuk-analise model van die RBS is ook getoets en gekalibreer deur die resultate van die model te vergelyk met data van werklike pypbreuke in die studiegebied. Die laaste hoofstuk (Hoofstuk 8) bevat die samevatting en die aanbevelings rakende die funksionaliteit van die voorgestelde RBS.

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