The validity of the developmental test of visual-motor integration in a selected pre-school sample in the South African context

Dunn, Munita (2001-12)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Visual-motor integration is an important neuro-psychological aspect of school readiness. Developmental deficits in this area can have a detrimental influence on a child's ability to master reading, writing and arithmetic skills at school entrance level. Visual-motor integration problems should therefore be detected as early as possible to be able to implement intervention strategies which will promote visual-motor development. The study is socially relevant as it corresponds with the South African school policy which changed to a more integrative, inclusive approach after 1994. The American standardised Beery Developmental Test for Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) is widely used as a screening technique for visual-motor abilities by psychologists, occupational therapists, educators and remedial teachers in South Africa. In order to determine the predictive validity of the American VMI for a group of South African subjects, the results of children on the VMI: 1989-norms and VMI: 1997-norms were compared to their results in the Copying Test of the Junior South African Individual Scales (JSAIS). Performance on these three tests were also compared with certain biographical variables as well as teacher ratings of specific academic skills. A representative sample of 238 pre-school children from the Stellenbosch region were selected. According to the obtained results, a significant relationship was found between the results of the VMI: 1989 and VMI: 1997. The results of both the VMI: 1989 and VMI: 1997 correlated significantly with the results of the Copying Test. Performance in the tests correlated with chronological age, socio-economic status, as well as teacher ratings of specific academic skills. The discrepancy between the test performance of the three ethnic groups, suggests that the rate of the perceptual motor development described by the VMI developmental norms may be culture-specific. Considering the overall results of this study, the interchangeability of the Copying Test and the VMI, especially the VMI: 1997, in clinical use is acceptable in the South African context. The Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration thus offers significant predictive validity, as well as a valid indication, of the visual-motor integration development in the sample ofpre-schoolers used.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Visueel-motoriese integrasie IS 'n essensiële neuro-sielkundige aspek van skoolgereedheid. Ontwikkelingsagterstande in hierdie area kan 'n kind se lees-, taal- en rekenkundige vermoëns nadelig beïnvloed. Probleme ten opsigte van visueel-motoriese integrasie behoort dus so vroeg as moontlik opgespoor te word sodat remediërende strategieë geïmplementeer kan word wat visueel-motoriese integrasie bevorder. Die navorsing is sosiaal relevant deurdat dit aansluit by die skoolbeleid wat sedert 1994 na 'n meer geïntegreerde, inklusiewe benadering met die akkomodasie van diversiteit, verander het. Sielkundiges, arbeidsterapeute, opvoedkundiges en remediërende onderwysers in Suid- Afrika benut die Amerikaans gestandaardiseerde Beery-Ontwikkelingstoets vir Visueel- Motoriese Integrasie (VMI) op gereelde grondslag vir die evaluering van visueelmotoriese vaardighede. Ten einde die voorspellingsgeldigheid te bepaal van die Amerikaanse VMI vir 'n groep Suid-Afrikaanse toetslinge, is hul prestasies op die VMI: 1989-norms, sowel as die VMI: 1997-norms, met hul prestasies in die Natekentoets van die Junior Suid-Afrikaanse Individuele Skale (JSAIS) vergelyk. Prestasie in die toetse is ook met sekere biografiese veranderlikes, sowel as onderwyser-beoordelings van spesifieke akademiese vaardighede, vergelyk. 'n Verteenwoordigende steekproef van 238 voorskoolse kinders vanuit die Stellenbosch-omgewing is gekies. Uit die resultate blyk daar 'n beduidende korrelasie tussen die VMI: 1989-resultate en die VMI: 1997-resultate te wees. Die resultate van beide die VMI: 1989 en VMI: 1997 het beduidend met dié van die Natekentoets gekorreleer. Prestasie in die toetse het met kronologiese ouderdom, sosio-ekonomiese status, asook onderwyser-beoordelings van spesifieke akademiese vaardighede, gekorreleer. Die VMI-prestasies van die drie etniese groepe het beduidend verskil en die gevolgtrekking kan gemaak word dat die VMI nie as 'n kultuurvrye toets beskou kan word nie. Die gevolgtrekking op grond van die resultate van die huidige studie blyk dat die VMI, en veral die VMI: 1997, beduidende voorspellingsgeldigheid by die voorskoolse ondersoekgroep gelewer het en a

ISISHW ANKATHELO: Ukumanya ngokuhamba okubonakalayo kuyinto ebalulekileyo yokulungela ukungena esikolweni. lintsilelo zenkqubela phambili kulo mba zinganefuthe elibonakalayo lobugcisa bokufunda emntwaneni, ukubhala nobuchule bezibalo kumgangatho wokungena esikolweni. lingxaki zokumanya ngokuhamba okubonakalayo kufuneka ziqatshelwe kuselithuba khon'ukuze kwenziwe amalinge okungenela aya kuthi onyuse inkqubela phambili yokuhamba okubonakalayo. I-Beery Development Test yokumanya ngokuhamba okubonakalayo (VMI) isetyenziswa ngokubanzi njengobugcisa bomkhusane wokuhamba okubonakalayo, ziinzululwazi zengqondo, iingcali zokunyanga, abefundisi-ntsapho, kwakunye neetitshala ezilungisayo eMzantsi Afrika, kodwa kusekho impikiswano yokuba olu vavanyo, lubekwe emgangathweni yiMelika, likhupha iziphumo ezizizo na kwilizwe leentlanga ezahlukeneyo njengoMzantsi Afrika. Ukuze kufunyanwe ukuba 1-VMI ikhupha iziphumo ezizizo na kumalungu aseMzantsi Afrika, iziphumo zabantwana kwi-VMI: 1989 nakwi- VMI: 1997 zathelekiswa neziphumo zabo kwi South African Copying Test. Kuye kwakhethwa isampulu yabantwana abangama-238 abalungele ukungena esikolweni kwingingqi yaseStellenbosch. Kuye kwafunyanwa unxulumano olubalulekileyo phakathi kweziphumo zeVMI: 1989 neze- VMI: 1997. Zozibini iziphumo ze-VMI: 1989 neze- VMI: 1997 ziye zanxulumana ngokubalulekileyo neziphumo ze-Copying Test. Indlela ekwenziwe ngayo iye yanxulumana nokulandelelana ngamaxesha obudala ngokunjalo novavanyo lukatitshala lobugcisa obuthile kwezemfundo. Umahluko wovavanyo phakathi kwendlela ekuqhutywe ngayo ziintlanga ezintathu, ucebisa ukuba isantya senkqubela phambili sendlela yokubona echazwe sisithethe senkqubela se-VMI sinokwayama kwimpucuko. Nakubeni kunjalo, xa sicinga ngeziphumo zonke zesi sifundo, 1-VMI inike uphawu lenkqubela phambili yokumanya ngokuhamba okubonakalayo kwisampulu yabantwana abasetyenzisiweyo abalungele ukungena esikolweni.

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