The molecular characterization of South African isolates of Grapevine Rupestris Stem Pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV)

Noach, Liesl Christine (2010-12)

Thesis (MSc (Genetics))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Includes bibliography.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The first aim of this study was to reliably and rapidly detect Grapevine rupestris stem pittingassociated virus (GRSPaV) in grapevine. This was achieved by screening 94 grapevines using crude plant extracts in both quantitative and conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The second aim was to establish a technique capable of differentiating GRSPaV sequence variants. The application of this technique is for the largescale screening of diseased vines to associate sequence variants of GRSPaV with disease symptoms. Nested quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high resolution melting assays (qPCR-HRM) were developed for three regions of the GRSPaV genome (coat protein, RNAdependant RNA-polymerase and triple gene block movement protein). The qPCR-HRM technique using the high saturation dye, EvaGreen™, and the Rotor-Gene™ 6000 analyzer was validated with a panel of sixteen sequence-characterized viral isolates. Diluted RT-PCR products and cloned cDNA gave the most consistent amplification plots and dissociation profiles. RT-PCR products generated from total RNA extracts were used as template for qPCR-HRM assays and for direct sequencing of sixteen samples in the three aforementioned regions. The average amplification efficiency for qPCR was 1.52±0.04. Auto-calling of userdefine genotypes was performed at a confidence interval of 70%. Phylogenetic analysis of the three regions of the GRSPaV genome was performed with published GenBank sequences to confirm the HRM data. The dominant sequence variants found in the South African sample set radiated with Group II, reference full-length variant GRSPaV-SG1. GRSPaV-infected samples can in future be subjected to qPCR-HRM assays developed during this study. This can be performed to establish similarity to known genotypes and therefore phylogenetic groups. Mixed infection of sequence variants and quasi-species were a common occurrence. The assay will be useful in establishing correlation of specific genotypes to different phenotypical expression of viral disease. This could provide insight into the etiology of diseases associated with GRSPaV.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die eerste doel van hierdie studie was om die virus wat met Rupestris-stamverpitting (Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus of “GRSPaV”) in wingerd verbind is, vinnig en betroubaar op te spoor. Dit is bereik deur 94 wingerdstokke vir die teenwoordigheid van die virus te toets met beide kwantitatiewe en konvensionele trutranskripsie polimerase kettingreaksies (RT - PCR) vanaf ongesuiwerde plant-ekstraksies. Die tweede doel was die daarstelling van ’n tegniek om onderskeid te tref tussen variante van GRSPaV met verskillende nukleotiedvolgordes. Hierdie tegniek kan op groot skaal gebruik word om ge-affekteerde wingerdstokke te toets om sodoende siektesimptome met spesifieke variante van GRSPaV te verbind. Ge-neste kwantitatiewe polimerase-kettingreaksies (qPCR) en hoë-resolusie smelt-analises (HRM) is ontwikkel vir drie streke van die GRSPaV-genoom (mantelproteïen, RNS-afhanklike RNS-polimerase en trippelgeenblok bewegingsproteïen). Die tegniek van qPCR-HRM met die hoë-versadingingskleurstof EvaGreen™ en die Rotor- Gene™ 6000 ontleder se geldigheid is bevestig deur vergelyking met ’n paneel van sestien virus-isolate waarvan die volgorde reeds bepaal is. Verdunde RT-PCR-produkte en gekloneerde DNS het die mees konsekwente amplifikasie-uitstipping en dissosiasieprofiele opgelewer. RT-PCR-produkte wat vanuit totale RNS-ekstrakte verkry is, is as templaat vir qPCR-HRM-analises gebruik. Dieselfde produkte is ook gebruik, om die volgorde van sestien monsters in drie streke direk te bepaal. Die gemiddelde amplifikasiedoeltreffendheid van die qPCR was 1.52±0.04. Gebruiker-gedefinieerde genotipes is deur middel van outooproeping teen ’n vertroue-interval van 70% uitgevoer. Filogenetiese analises vir drie streke van die GRSPaV-genoom is uitgevoer met gepubliseerde GenBank-volgordes om die HRMdata te bevestig. Die dominante volgorde-variante in die stel Suid-Afrikaanse monsters het ooreengestem met Groep II, vollengte-verwysingsvariant GRSPaV-SG1. Monsters wat met GRSPaV besmet is kan in die toekoms onderwerp word aan die qPCR-HRM-analises wat in hierdie studie ontwikkel is. Dit kan uitgevoer word om ooreenkomste met bekende genotipes te bepaal, en dus ook met filogenetiese groepe. Die besmetting van plante met meer as een volgorde-variant het algemeen voorgekom. Die kwasi-spesies populasie-struktuur van die virus het ook gedurig na vore gekom. Die toets sal nuttig wees in die bepaling van korrelasies tussen spesifieke genotipes en verskillende fenotipiese voorkomste van virussiektes. Dit kan insig verleen in die etiologie van siektes wat met GRSPaV verbind word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/5252
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