The adjective in Xhosa

Bottoman, Ntombesizwe (2001-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2001

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Adjectives in Xhosa represent a small, closed class of descriptive nominal modifiers, which are categorized as the adjective because of their morphological behaviour, i.e. they all have to appear with the prefix of the noun which is the head of the Noun Phrase. There are other nominal modifiers in Xhosa, which may have the same descriptive function as the small class of morphological adjectives. Attention focuses on the relative clauses and descriptive possessives. The term "Adjective" in Xhosa includes the semantic adjective. Various scholars define the adjective as a distinct category by establishing specific criteria for. Semantic prototypes with noun, adjective and verb types, i.e. semantic types according to Dixon (1991) are considered. Semantic types in Xhosa may also have this feature. The following categoreis have been considered: morphological adjective, descriptive possessive, relative clauses, i.e. nominal relative clauses and the verbal relative clauses. With regard to the morphological adjective: Some basic notions on the morphological adjectives, specifically the morphology of adjectives, adjectival phrases, the distribution of the adjectives, comparison and the co-ordinated adjectives, and the definite morpheme are dealt with. The following values have been dealt with regarding the structure of the relative clause, i.e. the nominal relative clause with the definite morpheme [a], the copulative verb and the nominal relative complements of the copulative verbs. Two issues have been discussed in the case of the descriptive possessive: firstly, where the descriptive part is the head of the Noun Phrase with meanings such as groups, nouns denoting quantity, cardinal numbers, the partitives, units of measure and mass, humans with the features of psychological and physical features, the infinitive clause, and secondly, the descriptive part is the complement of the preposition [-a-].

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Adjektiewe in Xhosa verteenwoordig 'n klein geslote klas van deskriptiewe nominale bepalers wat as 'n adjektief kategorie beskou word op grond van hul morfologie, di.i. hulle moet almal voorkom saam met die prefiks van die naamwoord wat die kern is van die naamwoordgroep. Daar is ander nominale bepalers in Xhosa wat dieselfde deskriptiewe funksie as die klein klas van morfologiese adjektiewe kan hê. Aandag is gegee an die relatiewe en deskriptiewe possessiewe. Die term "adjektief" in Xhosa sluit die semantiese adjektief in: verskeie taalkundiges definieer die adjektief as 'n aparte kategorie deur spesifieke kriteria vir adjektiewe te bepaal. Semantiese prototipes met naamwoorde, adjektiewe en werkwoordtipes, d.i. semantiese tipes volgens Dixon (1991) is ondersoek. Semantiese tipes in Xhosa kan ook hierdie kenmerk hê. Die volgende kategorieë is ondersoek: Morfologiese adjektief, deskriptiewe possessief, relatief klouse waaronder nominale en werkwoordelike relatiewe klause. Met verwysing na die morfologiese adjektief: sekere basiese begrippe ten opsigte van die morfologiese adjektief is nagegaan, waaronder spesiefiek die morfologie van adjektiewe, adjektief frases, die distribusie van die adjektiewe, vergelyking en die neweskikkende adjektiewe sowel as die bepaaldheidsmorfeem. Die volgende sake is oorweeg met betrekking tot die struktuur van die relatief klous: die nominale relatief klous met die bepaaldheidsmorfeem [-a-], die kapulatiewe werkwoord en die nominale relatiewe komplemente van die kopulatiewe werkwoorde. Twee sake is bespreek in die geval van die deskriptiewe possessief: eerstens, die deskriptiewe deel is die kern van die naamwoordfrase met betekenisse soos groepe, naamwoorde wat kwantiteit aandui, hooftelwoorde, partitiewe, eenhede van maat en massa, mense met sielkundige en fisiese kenmerke, die infinitief klous,· en tweedens die deskriptiewe deel is die komplement van die preposisie [-a-].

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