Selfgerapporteerde vrese van 'n geselekteerde groep voorskoolse kinders in 'n lae tot middel sosio-ekonomiese statusgebied

Keller, Suzaan R. (2001-04)

Thesis (M.A.) -- Stellenbosch University , 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to establish the content and number of the fears expressed by pre-school children in a low to middle class socio-economic area. In South Africa, a similar study has only been undertaken in a high class socio-economic area (Martalas, 1999). A further aim of this study was to establish whether there were differences in the fears expressed by the participants and, if so, whether these differences correlate with specific biographical variables. A predominantly qualitative method of data collection was used in this research. The data was collected by conducting a semi-structured interview with the participants and obtaining drawings of their fears. The sample included 50 pre-school children between the ages of 5 and 7 years attending 3 preschools in a low to middle class socio-economic area. The broad non-verbal intelligence functioning of the participants were measured by the Goodenough-Harris-Draw-a-Man test (Richter, Griesel en Wortley, 1989). The average non-verbal intelligence functioning of the participants was low average according to the DAM norms. The data was analysed quantitatively. The content and number of fears, as reported by the selected group of pre-school children in the low to middle class socio-economic area, were established and grouped into existing categories. Furthermore the relationship between the number of expressed fears, with regard to content and number, and the three biographical variables, gender, socio-economic status and parent report, was established. Accordingly, differences between and correlations with biographical variables regarding race, parental marital positions, sibling structures, education of parents, their working patterns and the fears reported by parents, as well as by the participants were calculated quantitatively. The method of combining a semi-structured interview with participants and drawings of their fears proved to be successful, as none of the participants reported no fears. The results of this research showed that the content of the fears was similar in many ways to that of previous research results. Animal fears, at 57,24 % of all the fears expressed by the participants, comprised by far the largest category of fears. The number of the expressed fears ranged from 1 to 10 per participant, and the average number of fears per participant was 2,9. This figure was lower than the average number of fears found in previous South African research (Martalas, 1999). Consistent with previous research, the current study showed that girls (63,45 %) had reported more fears than boys (36,55 %). In the current study however, this difference was not statistically significant. Some gender differences were statistically significant in that girls reported more fears of wild animals than boys and boys reported more fears in the category "other" fears (for example a fan, a brick, a bomb, an accident and videos) than girls. Although these results differ from South African research by Martalas (1999) research, it is similar to most other research results. Parents reported fewer fears than the participants and they also reported the category "medical", which the participants did not mention. Parents also reported more fears for girls than for the boys. The researcher concludes with some recommendations for further studies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die primêre doel van die onderhawige studie was om die inhoud en aantal vrese soos uitgedruk deur voorskoolse kinders in 'n lae tot middel sosio-ekonomiese statusgebied te bepaal. So 'n studie is in die verlede slegs in 'n hoë sosio-ekonomiese statusgebied in Suid-Afrika gedoen (Martalas, 1999). 'n Newe-doelstelling van die onderhawige studie was om vas te stelof daar verskille is tussen die vrese soos uitgedruk deur die deelnemers en, indien wel, of hierdie verskille verband hou met sekere biografiese veranderlikes. In die onderhawige navorsing is 'n oorwegend kwalitatiewe metode van datainsameling gebruik. Die data is ingesamel deur gebruik te maak van 'n semigestruktureerde onderhoud met die deelnemers, terwyl hulle terselfdertyd tekeninge gemaak het van dit wat hulle vrees. Die teikengroep was 50 voorskoolse kinders tussen die ouderdomme van 5 en 7 jaar wat drie kleuterskole in 'n lae tot middel sosioekonomiese status gebied bygewoon het. Die deelnemers se benaderde nie-verbale intellektuele funksionering is met behulp van die Goodenough-Harris-Draw-a-Man toets (Richter, Griesel en Wortley, 1989) bepaal. Die deelnemers het In oorwegend laag gemiddelde skaaltelling volgens die DAM norms (Harris, 1963) getoon. Die data is kwantitatief geanaliseer. Die inhoud en aantal vrese, soos deur die geselekteerde groep voorskoolse kinders in 'n lae tot middel sosio-ekonomiese statusgebied gerapporteer, is bepaal. Dit is in samehang met veranderlikes naamlik geslag, sosio-ekonomiese status en ouerrapportering gedoen. Die inhoud en aantal vrese, soos deur die deelnemers gerapporteer, is daarna volgens bestaande kategorieë ingedeel. Vervolgens is verskille tussen, en korrelasies met biografiese veranderlikes, soos geslag, huwelikstatus, sibbestruktuur, opvoeding en werkpatroon van ouers, ouerrapportering van vrese by hul kinders en die vrese wat die deelnemers gerapporteer het, kwantitatief bepaal. http://scholar.sun.ac.za/ IV Die metode om gebruik te maak van 'n kombinasie van die teken van vrese en 'n semigestruktureerde onderhoud met die deelnemers was suksesvol, aangesien daar geen deelnemers was wat nie gerespondeer het nie. Die resultate van die onderhawige navorsing het getoon dat die inhoud van die vrese in baie opsigte ooreengestem het met die van ander navorsingsbevindings. Gerapporteerde vrese vir diere, wat 57,24 % van al die genoemde vrese verteenwoordig het, was by uitstek die grootste kategorie van vrese. Die aantal vrese wat genoem is, het gestrek van 1 tot lOper deelnemer en die gemiddelde aantal vrese per deelnemer was 2,9. Dit was egter minder as by vorige Suid-Afrikaanse navorsing van dieselfde ouderdomsgroep volgens die navorsing van Martalas (1999). In ooreenstemming met die meeste navorsingsresultate, het meisies In die onderhawige studie meer vrese (63,45 %) as 'seuns (36,55 %) gerapporteer, hoewel hierdie verskil nie statisties beduidend was nie. Sommige geslagverskille was statisties beduidend in die sin dat meisies meer vrese vir wilde diere as seuns en seuns meer in die kategorie "ander" vrese, soos byvoorbeeld vir 'n waaier, 'n baksteen, bomme, om omgery te word en videos, as meisies gerapporteer het. Hoewel dit van Martalas (1999) se navorsingsresultate verskil, is dit in ooreenstemming met die meeste ander navorsingsbevindinge. Ouers het minder vrese namens hulle kinders as die deelnemers self gerapporteer en vrese is in die kategorie "medies" gerapporteer wat nie deur die deelnemers self gerapporteer is nie. Ouers het ook meer vrese namens die meisies as namens die seuns gerapporteer. Enkele aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word ten slotte gemaak.

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