Rootstock and dormancy studies in apple and pear

Jacobs, Johannes N. (Johannes Nicolaas) (2001-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Delayed foliation is commonly observed in apple and pear producing countries with warm and/or short winter climates, resulting in less synchronised budburst, of fewer buds and reduced yield. Applications of rest-breaking agents minimise the symptoms of delayed foliation. According to chilling models used in fruit producing areas of the world, the climate of South Africa is not suitable for deciduous fruit production, however fruit has been successfully produced here for a long time. This study aimed to quantify the effects of freezing temperatures, different chilling temperatures and the period of chilling, to obtain a better knowledge of bud dormancy release on apple and pear shoots. The chilling period was the most important factor influencing the progression of dormancy. While in some cases the chilling temperature and the freeze treatment effects were significant, the contribution to differences in the progression of dormancy was negligible. Our findings indicate that currently used chilling models should emphasise the time of exposure to low temperatures more than the difference in temperatures between I to ro-c. The South African apple and pear industry made good progress in moving towards high density plantings, but large variation in soil types, non-optimum growing conditions, replant situations and a lack experience with dwarfing rootstocks limited further development. However, there is sti II an urgency to obtain higher early yields of good quality fruit applying the most efficient production practices. We aimed to quantify the field performance of locally available apple and pear rootstocks, in particular from data outside of previously reported local trials, as well as early production of newly planted trials. Information obtained form the industry indicates that BPI and BP3 are the preferred pear rootstocks. From production records of 'Packham's Triumph' pears, it appeared that BP3 and OHxF97 produced the best yields compared to the other rootstocks. Production of 'Doyenne du Cornice' was the best on QA and BP3. In newly planted 'Rosemarie', 'Flamingo', and 'Forelle' trials, different rootstocks were evaluated. 'Rosemarie' showed indications 01 incompatibility with QA and QC5 I, but on BPI and QA with a 'Beurre Hardy' interstock produced good initial yields although BPI induced slightly larger trees. 'Flamingo' on QA and QC51 produced the best yields. 'Forelle' on BPI, BP3, and QA produced similar yields up to the 4th leaf. For apples M793 seems to be the preferred rootstock in the South African industry. From production records of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apples, it appeared that M793 and MM 106 produced the best yields when compared to Seedling rootstock. In a 'Cripps' Pink' trial, MMI09, M793 and M25 were more vigorous than M7, MMlll and MMI06. MMI06 was cumulatively, over four years from planting, the most yield efficient, although no consistent trend regarding fruit quality was observed between the rootstocks evaluated.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vertraagde bot word algemeen opgemerk in appel en peer produserende lande met n' warm enlof kort winter klimaat, wat veroorsaak dat bot van minder knoppe, meer ongelyk plaasvind en gevolglik lei tot swakker opbrengste. Toediening van rus-breek middels beperk die simptome van vertraagde bot. Volgens koue modelle wat in vrugte produserende areas in die wereld gebruik word, is Suid Afrika se klimaat nie geskik vir die verbouing van sagtevrugte nie alhoewel sagtevrugte al vir n lang tyd met groot sukses hier verbou word. Hierdie studie is daarop gemik om die effek van vries temperature, verskillende koue temperature en die periode van koue op die vrystelling van dormansie op knoppe van appel en peer lote te kwantifiseer. Die peri ode van koue was die mees belangrikste faktor wat die ontwikkeling van dormansie beinvloed het. In sommige gevalle was die effek van die koue temperature betekenisvol, maar die bydrae tot die verskille in die ontwikkeling van dormansie was weglaatbaar klein. Ons bevindinge dui aan dat die huidige koue modelle wat gebruik word, meer klem moet le op die periode van blootstelling aan koue as aan die effek van verski llende temperature tussen 1 en 10°e. Die Suid Afrikaanse appel en peer bedryf het goeie vordering in die beweging na hoe digtheid aanplantings gemaak, maar groot verskille in grond tipes, sub-optimale groei toestande, herplant probleme en n' tekort aan ondervinding met dwergende onderstamme het verdere ontwikkeling beperk. Ten spyte hiervan is daar steeds n' dringendheid om hcer produksies, van goeie kwaliteit vrugte so vroeg as moontlik te kry deur die toepassing van die mees effektiewe produksie praktyke. Ons het gepoog om die prestasie van plaaslik beskikbare appel en peer onderstamme te kwantifiseer, in besonder deur data wat nog nie van tevore oor verslag gedoen is nie en ook deur te meld van vroee produksies op nuut aangeplante proewe. lnformasie uit die bedryf het aangedui dat BP 1 en BP3 die voorkeur peer onderstamme is. Deur na die produksie geskiedenis van 'Packham's Truimph' pere te kyk kom dit voor of BP3 en OHxF97 die beste produksies in vergelyking met die ander onderstamme gelewer het. Die produksie van 'Doyenne du Com ice' was die beste op QA en BP3. In nuut geplante 'Rosemarie', 'Flamingo', en 'Forelle' pro ev e was verskillende onderstammc gecvalueer. 'Rosemarie' het tekens van onverenigbaarheid getoon met QA en Q 51, maar op BP 1 en QA met n 'Beurre Hardy' tussenstam het 'Rosemarie' goeie aanvanklike opbrengste gel ewer, al was bome op BP 1 effens grater. 'Flamingo' op QA en QCS 1 het die beste opbrengste gelewer. 'Forelle' op BP 1, BP3, en QA het ongeveer ewe veel tot die 4dc blad geproduseer. By appels is M793 die voorkeur onderstam van die Suid-Afrikaanse appel bedryf. M793 en MM 106 gee beter opbrengste as Saailing onderstam wanner die produksie geskiedenis van 'Golden Delicious' en 'Granny Smith' appels evalueer word. In n' 'Cripps' Pink' proefwas MMI09, M793 en M2S meer groeikragtig as M7, MMlil en MMI06. MM I 06 het kumulatief meer geproduseer en was ook meer produsie doeltreffend tot en met die 4de blad na plant. Daar was egter geen konstante neiging rakende vrug kwaliteit tussen die verskillende onderstamme wat getoets is nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52441
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