Residential urban renewal in a South African context

Van der Merwe, Nicolaas Pieter (2001-12)

Thesis (MS en S)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: All cities experience urban deterioration in some form or other. This deterioration is caused by many, diverse factors. The deterioration leads to a loss of investment in the city and a downward cycle where the causes and consequences of urban deterioration can strengthen each other. South Africa's fast population growth cause several problems for the country. One of these problems is suburban expansion, which creates urban sprawl; with its associated problem of ineffective land utilisation. Urban renewal can be applied to address urban deterioration and utilise Brownfield sites, which are derelict or underused sites; instead of Greenfield sites, which are sites that have not been previously developed. It has been found that South African policy still benefit the development of Greenfield sites. Urban renewal can be used as a tool to address South Africa's unequal development and opportunities among the different races by improving the people's living conditions. Development starts with human development. This study gives a historical and theoretical overview of the urban renewal field of study. After the review of various authors and four case studies in Cape Town and Johannesburg, it can be concluded that the urban renewal process can be approached through various methods and should be included in any city's spatial development framework. The potential roles local government can play were identified as being to implement a communitybased redevelopment approach, designing area-specific strategies where redevelopment is feasible and making grants and tax incentives available. Local governments could also be involved in public-private partnerships. The role of the planner within the renewal process has also increased to that of assessing the need and justification for urban renewal; initiating the projects; negotiating between various role players; implementing the projects; and monitoring the success thereof. Special focus was given to gentrification in Cape Town and it was found that displacement of the original residents does indeed occur. The question within a free market economy is whether the authority should interfere in this process or not, especially with regard to historic and culturally sensitive areas such as Bo-Kaap. This could possibly be motivated as being in the "public interest" in the above case Recommendations were that a community-based redevelopment approach should be followed; physical and social rehabilitation should be integrated; demolition and displacement must be avoided; and resources must be allocatd to neighbourhoods rather than individuals. Projects must also be an intense, short termed action, using local institutions for implementation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Enige stad ondervind stedelike verval in een of ander vorm. Hierdie agteruitgang word veroorsaak deur verskeie, uiteenlopende faktore. Stedelike verval lei tot 'n verlies aan investering in die stad en word gevolg deur 'n afwaartse siklus waar die oorsake en gevolge van stedelike verval mekaar versterk. Suid Afrika se snelle bevolkingsgroei veroorsaak verskeie probleme. Een van dié probleme is voorstedelike uitbreiding wat stadskruip veroorsaak; met die geassosieerde probleem van oneffektiewe benutting van grond. Stedelike hernuwing kan aangewend word om stedelike verval aan te spreek, en die benutting van "Brownfield" terreine, wat vervalle, onderbenutte areas is; instede van "Greenfield" terreine, wat voorheen onontwikkelde terreine is, aan te moedig. Dit is gevind dat Suid Afrikaanse beleid steeds die ontwikkeling van "Greenfield" terreine aanmoedig. Stedelike hernuwing kan ook gebruik word as 'n instrument om Suid Afrika se ongelyke ontwikkeling en geleenthede, tussen die verskille rasse, aan te spreek deur die mense se lewens omstandighede te verbeter. Ontwikkeling begin by die huis. Hierdie studie gee 'n historiese en teoretiese oorsig van die stedelike hernuwing studiegebied, met die klem op residensiële hernuwing. Nadat die literatuur van verskeie skrywers, voorbeelde en gevallestudies in Kaapstad en Johannesburg ondersoek is, kan die gevolgtrekking gemaak word dat die stedelike hernuwingsproses aangepak kan word deur verskeie metodes. Stedelike hernuwing behoort ook by elke dorp se ruimtelike ontwikkelingsraamwerk ingesluit te wees. Die potensiële rolle van plaaslike owerhede is gevind om te wees: die implementering van 'n gemeenskap-gebaseerde herontwikkelings benadering; die ontwerp van area-spesifieke strategieë waar herontwikkeling uitvoerbaar is; en die beskikbaarstelling van toegewing en belasting aansporings. Plaaslike regerings kan ook betrokke wees in publieke-private vennootskappe. Die rol van die beplanner binne die hernuwingsproses het ook vergroot tot die bepaling van die behoefte en regverdiging van stedelike hernuwing; inisiëring van projekte; onderhandelings tussen die verskillende rolspelers; implementering van die projekte; en die monitering van die projek se sukses. Daar is spesiale aandag gegee aan die gentrifikasie ("gentrification") proses in Kaapstad waar daar gevind is dat die oorspronklike inwoners wel verplaas word in die proses. Die vraag binne 'n vrye mark ekonomie is of owerhede moet inmeng in die proses of nie, veral met betrekking tot historiese en kultureel sensitiewe areas soos Bo-Kaap. Dit kon moontlik gemotiveer wees as om in die "openbare belang" te wees in bogenoemde geval. Voorstelle wat gemaak was, is dat 'n gemeenskaps-gebaseerde herontwikkelings benadering gevolg moet word; fisiese en sosiale rehabilitasie moet geintegreer word; sloping en verplasing moet vermy word; en hulpbronne moet toegeken word aan woonbuurtes eerder as individue. Projekte moet ook 'n intens, kort termyn aksie wees en plaaslike institusies vir die implementering gebruik.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52433