Poverty alleviation through community development : the case of PRO PRIDE-Ethiopia

Atfaye, Haile (2001-12)

Thesis (MPA)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Misunderstanding of poverty and lack of sound poverty alleviating strategy, among others, are problems of some of the few NGOs existing in Ethiopia. There is a problem of understanding their roles in relation to the State and other stakeholders. The principles they apply in their intervention are other problems. These are the issues that were researched in the PRO PRIDE case study. The legitimacy of PRO PRIDE as a poverty-alleviating programme in view of global and Ethiopian poverty and the consequent policy focuses is justified. The principles of PRO PRIDE - community participation, gender equity, intersectoral collaboration, appropriate technology, focus on prevention, participatory management, cost effectiveness and sustainability of programmes - are sound principles. Reviewing the practices of PRO PRIDE as guided by the aforementioned principles it is understood that the community development principles - human orientation, public participation, empowerment, ownership, release, social learning, adaptiveness and simplicity - are commendably achieved. PRO PRIDE well dealt with understanding poverty and its interwoven nature. Issues such as the deprivation trap that the poor are entangled in; the general explanation of poverty that are given by different authors; vicious cycles of poverty and social, economic and political causes of poverty which are operating at local, national and international levels; and the rural-urban dynamics that work in exacerbating the urban poverty are covered in its socio-economic study. The study of the programme areas shows that they depict a dismal picture as a result of the operation of these poverty dynamics. Regarding the integrated rural-urban poverty alleviation strategy, the State has made favourable policies and itself dwelled on rural poverty due to lack of financial capacity to cover both rural and urban areas. The State's rural focus is accepted to impact on the urban poverty through changing the migration pattern. PRO PRIDE is operating in the urban setting to connect the nexus - the rural-urban strategy. PRO PRIDE is operating with an integrated urban development strategy encompassing income generation, basic education, primary health care, HIV IAIDS prevention and control and environmental sanitation. Through integrating these areas of intervention PRO PRIDE is improving the quality of life, promoting sustainable urban economic growth, creating income and employment generating opportunities, giving people access to resources and opportunities, improving the distribution of income and welfare, and applying sound developmental principles. The functioning of PRO PRIDE is proven to be in a well compliance with the requirement for organisations alike. It is functioning in collaboration and participation with the popular sector - the people themselves and their community leaders. It operates with the agreement of the State bodies such as FRDCB and with other line bureaus such as Health, Education, Environmental Development, and Labour and Social Affairs. It collaborates with donors the major being ActionAid - Ethiopia (AAE). Internal components of PRO PRIDE such as the Board and the staff as well as its organisational development influence its operation. All the programmes and the projects are managed through PRO PRIDE's interaction with its internal and external stakeho lders. PRO PRIDE as an agent of development has played as a catalyst to initiate development, focused on empowerment and using the people's latent potential, materialised capacity building and facilitation. These are basically the requirements that the current NGOs should fulfill, which PRO PRIDE commendably did. The study has indicated that although PRO PRIDE is an organisation of overall success, there are some areas of future focus both by the State and PRO PRIDE. Recommendations are made as to what both parties should do in their future focuses.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wanopvattings oor armoede en die gebrek aan gesonde strategieë vir die verligting van armoede, onder andere, is swakhede van sommige van die paar bestaande NGO's in Ethiopië. Verder ondervind hulle ook probleme om hulle rol met betrekking tot die Staat en ander deelhouers te verstaan; ook die beginsels wat hulle by intervensie beoefen, is problematies. Hierdie is die kwessies wat deur die PRO PRIDE gevallestudie ondersoek word. Die legitimiteit van PRO PRIDE as 'n armoede-verligtende program, gesien in die lig van die globale en Ethiopiese armoede en die voortspruitende beleidsfokusse, word geregverdig. Die beginsels van PRO PRIDE - gemeenskapsdeelname, geslagsgelykheid, intersektorale samewerking, geskikte tegnologie, fokus op voorkoming, deelnemende bestuur, koste-effektiwiteit en die volhoubaarheid van programme - is gesonde beginsels. Oorweging van die praktyke van PRO PRIDE aan die hand van voorgenoemde beginsels toon dat die beginsels van gemeenskapsontwikkeling - menslike oriëntasie, openbare deelname, bemagtiging, eienaarskap, bevryding, sosiale leer, aanpasbaarheid en eenvoudigheid - noemenswaardig verwesenlik is. PRO PRIDE het goed daarin geslaag om armoede en die verweefde aard daarvan te verstaan. Kwessies soos die ontberingsvalstrik waarin die armes vasgevang is; die algemene verklarings vir armoede deur verskillende skrywers; die bose kringloop van armoede en die sosiale, ekonomiese en politieke oorsake van armoede, aangetref op plaaslike, nasionale en internasionale vlakke; asook die landelik-stedelike dinamika wat meewerk tot die verergering van stedelike armoede word gedek in die sosio-ekonomiese studie. Die bestudering van die programareas verbeeld 'n droewige prentjie te wyte aan die operering van hierdie armoede- dinamiek. Betreffende die geïntegreerde landelik-stedelike armoede-verligtingstrategie, het die Staat gunstige beleide gemaak en oorheersend gefokus op landelike armoede vanweë 'n gebrek aan finansiële kapasiteit vir die aanspreking van die probleem in beide landelike en stedelike gebiede. Die Staat se landelike fokus is aanneemlik gevind vir die impak wat dit op stedelike armoede kon hê deur verandering van die migrasiepatroon. PRO PRIDE opereer vanuit 'n stedelike omgewing om die verbinding, landelik-stedelike strategie, te bewerkstellig. Dit opereer binne 'n geïntegreerde stedelike ontwikkelingstrategie behelsende inkomstegenerering, basiese opvoeding, primêre gesondheidsorg, VIGS-voorkoming en -beheer, asook omgewingsanitasie. Deur integrering van hierdie tussenkomsgebiede verbeter PRO PRIDE lewenskwaliteit, bevorder dit volhoubare stedelike ekonomiese groei, genereer dit inkomste- en indiensnemingsgeleenthede, maak dit hulpbronne en geleenthede toeganklik vir mense, verbeter dit die distribusie van inkomste en welvaart en pas dit gesonde ontwikkelingsbeginsels toe. Die funksionering van PRO PRIDE is bewys te voldoen aan die vereistes gestel vir ooreenstemmende organisasies. Dit funksioneer met die samewerking en deelname van die volksektor - die mense en hulle gemeenskapsleiers. Dit opereer met die instemming van Staatsorgane soos FRDCB en ander lynstaatsinstansies soos dié van Gesondheid, Opvoeding, Omgewingsontwikkeling en Arbeid en Sosiale Aangeleenthede. PRO PRIDE werk ook saam met donateurs van wie die vernaamste ActionAid-Ethiopië (AAE) is. Interne komponente soos die Raad en personeel, asook die organisatoriese ontwikkeling van PRO PRIDE beïnvloed die operering daarvan. Alle programme en projekte word bestuur deur PRO PRIDE se interaksie met sy interne en eksterne deelhouers. PRO PRIDE as 'n ontwikkelingsagent het as 'n katalisator opgetree om ontwikkeling te inisieer, het gefokus op bemagtiging en gebruik van die mense se latente potensiaal en het kapasiteitsbou en fasilitering bewerkstellig. Hierdie basiese vereistes waaraan NGO's behoort te voldoen is noemenswaardig deur PRO PRIDE gerealiseer. Die studie het getoon dat hoewel PRO PRIDE in die geheel geslaag het as organisasie, daar tog sommige gebiede is wat toekomstige aandag van beide die Staat en PRO PRIDE verdien. Aanbevelings word gemaak oor wat beide partye in hul toekomstige fokus behoort te onderneem.

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