PCR-RFLP typification of microbes used in the production of a fermented fish product

Spengler, C. J. (2001-12)

Thesis (MScFoodSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The preservation of various fresh fish products is achieved by either smoking, salting, canning, freezing or fermenting a highly perishable raw product. Since many of these facilities are not readily available, the use of fermentation as a means of preserving the product has been extensively practiced. However, the fermentation of fish is a time consuming practise and only by accelerating the process would it be possible to ensure the production of a more cost effective and readily available safe end-product. The quality of the fermented fish product is partially determined by the fermentation conditions and the metabolic activity of the microbes present. The rapid identification of the microbes present during the fermentation would enable the selection of possible starters to ensure an accelerated production of high quality fermented fish products. This study was thus undertaken to develop identification fingerprints for bacteria isolated from fermented fish products. A 1300 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA genes of each of the bacteria previously isolated was successfully amplified using the PCR technique. The isolates included strains of the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas, Kocuria, Brevibacillus, Cryseomonas, Vibrio, Stenotrophomonas and Agrobacterium. The data obtained can, therefore, be used in the identification of these microbes isolated from other similar fermented fish products. The fingerprints could also be used to assist in determining the dominant microbial populations responsible for the characteristic qualitative changes occurring in the fish product during fermentation. The microbial composition of a fermenting fish product partially determines the quality of the end-product, therefore, the use of selected bacterial starters could result in the accelerated production of a microbial safe fermented fish product. A further objective of this study was to accelerate the production of a fermented fish product by inoculating macerated trout with either selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or with selected bacteria with high proteolytic activity over a 30 day fermentation period. The LAB included a combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus diacetylactis and Pediococcus cerevisiae strains, whereas the bacteria with high proteolytic activity included strains of Kocuria varians, Bacillus subtilis, two strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and a combination of these bacterial species. The quality of the fermented product was determined using changes in product pH, titratable acidity (%TA) and free amino nitrogen (FAN) formation as efficiency parameters. The data obtained during the fermentation of the macerated trout showed that the selected starters did not have a significant effect on the pH decrease in the product over a 30 day fermentation period. The LAB strains did not have a significant effect on the %TA of the fermenting fish product, yet the presence of these bacteria appeared to limit the FAN production in the product. The bacteria with high proteolytic activity resulted in slightly enhanced %TA values and a higher FAN content in the fermented product. It was also determined that the LAB and Kocuria varians, in contrast to the Bacillus spp. inoculums, did not survive the fermentation conditions well, possibly due to the low pH environment. The presence of the starter bacteria in the fermenting fish mixture at the end of the fermentation was also successfully determined with the use of the PCR-RFLP technique. The fermented fish product, obtained at the end of the fermentation period, had a good aroma and compared favourably to similar commercially available fermented fish products. The use of different microbial starters could in future enable the production of a diverse range of high quality products, which could be produced and marketed locally.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die preservering van ‘n verskeidenheid vars vis produkte word bereik deur die hoogs bederfbare produk te rook, te sout, te blik, te vries of te fermenteer. Aangesien baie van hierdie fasiliteite nie geredelik beskikbaar is nie, is die gebruik van fermentasie as ‘n preserverings metode al ekstensief beoefen. Die fermentasie van vis is egter 'n tydsame proses en slegs deur die versnelling van die proses sal dit moontlik wees om die produksie van ‘n meer koste effektiewe en geredelike beskikbare veilige eindproduk te verseker. Die kwaliteit van die gefermenteerde vis produk word gedeeltelik bepaal deur die fermentasie kondisies en die metaboliese aktiwiteit van die mikrobes teenwoordig. Die vinnige identifikasie van die mikrobes teenwoordig gedurende die fermentasie sal die seleksie van moontlike suursels om die versnelde produksie van hoë kwaliteit gefermenteerde vis produkte moontlik maak. Hierdie studie is dus onderneem om identifikasie vingerafdrukke vir bakteriee wat gei'soleer is van gefermenteerde vis produkte moontlik te maak. ‘n 1300 bp fragment van die 16S rRNA gene van elkeen van die bakteriee wat voorheen gei'soleer is, is suksesvol geamplifiseer deur die PCR tegniek. Die isolate sluit in stamme van die genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas, Kocuria, Brevibacillus, Cryseomonas, Vibrio, Stenotrophomonas en Agrobacterium. Die data kan dus gebruik word in die identifikasie van hierdie mikrobes as dit gei'soleer word van ander gefermenteerde vis produkte. Die vingerafdrukke kan ook gebruik word om die dominante mikrobiese populasies wat verantwoordelik is vir die kenmerklike kwalitatiewe veranderinge wat plaasvind in die vis produk gedurende die fermentasie, te identifiseer. Die mikrobiese samestelling van ‘n fermenterende vis produk bepaal gedeeltelik die kwaliteit van die eindproduk, daarom kan die gebruik van geselekteerde bakteriese suursels die versnelde produksie van ‘n mikrobies veilige gefermenteerde vis produk teweeg bring. ‘n Verdere doel van hierdie studie was om die produksie van ‘n gefermenteerde vis produk te versnel deur fyngemaakte forel met of geselekteerde melksuurbakteriee of met geselekteerde bakteriee met hoë proteolitiese aktiwiteit te inokuleer oor ‘n 30 dag fermentasie periode. Die melksuurbakteriee het ingesluit ‘n kombinasie van Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus diacetylactis en Pediococcus cerevisiae, terwyl die bakterieë met hoë proteolitiese aktiwiteit stamme van Kocuria varians, Bacillus subtilis, twee stamme van Bacillus amyloliquefaciens en ‘n kombinasie van hierdie bakteriese stamme ingesluit het. Die kwaliteit van die gefermenteerde produk is bepaal deur die veranderinge in die pH, titreerbare suur (%TS) en vrye amino stikstof (VAS) vorming van die produk as effektiwiteits parameters te gebruik. Die data wat verkry is gedurende die fermentasie van die fyngemaakte forel het gedui daarop dat die geselekteerde suursels nie ‘n merkwaardige effek op die afname in pH in die produk oor ‘n 30 dag fermentasie periode het nie. Die melksuurbakteriee het nie ‘n merkwaardige effek op die %TS van die gefermenteerde vis produk gehad nie, terwyl dit geblyk het dat die teenwoordigheid van hierdie bakterieë die produksie van VAS in die produk belemmer het. Die bakteriee met hoe proteolitiese aktiwiteit het ‘n effense verhoogde %TS en ‘n hoër VAS inhoud in die gefermenteerde produk veroorsaak. Dit is ook bepaal dat die melksuurbakteriee en Kocuria varians, in teenstelling met die Bacillus spp. inokulums, nie die fermentasie kondisies goed oorleef het nie, moontlik as gevolg van die lae pH omgewing. Die teenwoordigheid van die suursel bakteriee in die fermenterende vis mengsel aan die einde van die fermentasie is ook suksesvol bepaal met die PKR-RFLP tegniek. Die gefermenteerde vis produk, verkry aan die einde van die fermentasie periode, het ‘n goeie aroma gehad en het goed vergelyk met soortgelyke kommersieel beskikbare gefermenteerde vis produkte. Die gebruik van verskillende mikrobiese suursels kan in die toekoms die produksie van ‘n diverse reeks hoë kwaliteit produkte wat plaaslik geproduseer en bemark kan word moontlik maak.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52397
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