Genetic parameter estimates for weaning traits in a multibreed beef cattle population

Melka, Hailu Dadi (2001-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--University Stellenbosch, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters as well as to evaluate the influence of some genetic factors on preweaning growth traits in a multi breed beef cattle population. These preweaning growth traits were birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (ADG). Three aspects were addressed in this particular study; namely the Estimation of (co)variance components and genetic parameters, the effect of sire breeds and dam genotypes and the contribution of Charolais and Angus breeding levels on weaning traits in a multibreed beef cattle herd. Variance components and resulting genetic parameters of BW, WW and ADG in the population were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) procedures. Four different unitrait and multitrait animal models were fitted ranging from a simple model with the animal direct effects as the only random effect to the model allowing for both genetic and permanent maternal environmental effects. The model that included directgenetic and permanent maternal environmental effects generally best described the data analysed. The simple model ignoring maternal effects most likely inflated direct heritability estimates. Direct heritability estimates were 0.11, 0.19, and 0.15 for BW, WW and ADG, respectively, fitting a multitrait model that comprised of both the genetic and maternal environmental effects. Under this comprehensive model, maternal heritabilties were low under both analyses, ranging from 0.02 to 0.10. Permanent maternal environmental effects were more important than maternal additive genetic effects for WW and ADG. Direct and maternal genetic correlations range from 0.42 to 0.44 for BW, -0.22 to -0.25 for WW and -0.17 to -0.23 for ADG, while the corresponding estimates ofunitrait analysis varied from 0.58 to 0.61 for BW, -0.43 to-0.53 for WW and -0.49 to -0.79 for ADG. The effect of Charolais and Hereford sires and dam breed genotypes on BW and WW in calves of Hereford, F I, two and three breed rotational as well as terminal crosses among the Charolais, Hereford, Angus and Bonsmara breeds were investigated. BW and WW of the Charolais sired calves were significantly (P<O.OOl) heavier than the Hereford sired calves. Angus dams produced calves of smaller (P<0.05) BW than those of purebred and crossbred dams. The majority of the crossbred dams were not significantly different in BW of calves. With regard to WW, with the exception of 3/4H1I4A, all crossbred dams were superior (P<0.05) to Angus and Hereford dams. Calves of crossbred dams were on the average 8% heavier at weaning than calves of purebred dams. Crossbred dams, with intermediate Charolais contribution tend to wean heavier calves. Data collected were also analysed to determine the optimum breeding levels of Charolais and Angus, fitting a unitrait animal model. Further, the estimated heritabilities were subsequently used to predict direct and maternal breeding values (Best linear unbiased predictions) for individual animals. Best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs) were also calculated for the traits. BLUEs, direct and maternal breeding values per genetic group estimated were regressed on proportions of Charolais and Angus breeding, respectively. BLUEs of BW, WW and ADG increased with increasing the proportion of Charolais while they decreased with increasing Angus breeding levels. In general, maternal breeding values increased with increasing the proportions of both breeds. Direct breeding values of Charolais increased and reached maximum values at 35, 38, and 45% proportion of Charolais for BW, WW and ADG, respectively. No optimal Angus proportion was found within these specific environmental conditions. In this herd it may be suggested that increasing the proportion of Charolais to intermediate levels would tend to improve the performances of preweaning traits.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die studie was om genetiese parameters in 'n meerras vleisbeeskudde te beraam, sowel as om die invloed van sekere genetiese faktore te evalueer. Die voorspeense groei-eienskappe het geboortegewig (BW), speengewig (WW) en gemiddelde daaglikse toename (ADG) ingesluit. Drie aspekte is in dié betrokke studie ondersoek, naamlik; die beraming van (ko )variansiekomponente en genetiese parameters, die invloed van ras van vader en moedergenotipe en die invloed van Charolais en Angus bydrae op speeneienskappe in 'n meerras vleisbeeskudde. Variansiekomponente en afgeleide genetiese parameters vir BW, WW en ADG in die kudde is met behulp van die Beperkte Maksimum Waarskynlikheidsprosedure (REML) beraam. Vier verskillende enkel- en meereienskapmodelle is gepas, wat vanaf 'n eenvoudige model wat slegs die direkte effek as enigste toevallige effek, tot dié model waarin beide die genetiese en permanente mateme omgewingseffekte ingesluit is. Die model wat beide die direkte en permanente mateme effekte ingesluit het, het die data die beste gepas. Die eenvoudige model, wat die mateme effekte nie insluit nie, het in alle waarskynlikheid die direkte oorerflikhede oorberaam. Die direkte oorerflikheidsberamingsas onderskeidlik 0.11, 0.19 en 0.15 vir BW, WW en ADG met dié meereienskapmodel wat beide genetiese en mateme effekte ingesluit het. Met die omvattende model was die mateme oorerflikhede laag en het van 0.02 tot 0.10 gewissel. Die permanente mateme omgewingseffekte was belangriker as die direkte mateme effekte vir WW en ADG. Die genetiese korrelasies tussen direkte en mateme effekte het vir BW tussen 0.42 en 0.44, vir WW tussen -0.22 en -0.25 en vir ADG tussen -0.49 en -0.79 gewissel. Die invloed van Charolais en Hereford bulle en moederrasgenotipes op BW en WW van Hereford, F 1, twee- en drieras rotasie sowel as terminale kruisings tussen die Charolais, Hereford, Angus en Bonsmara is ondersoek. BW en WW van kalwers van Charolais bulle was betekenisvol (P<O.OOl) swaarder as kalwers van Hereford bulle. Angus koeie het kalwers met laer (P<0.05) BW as die van ander suiwer en kruisraskoeie geproduseer. Kalwers van die meerderheid kruisraskoeie het egter nie in BW verskil nie. Wat WW betref, maar met die uitsondering van %HYtA, was alle kruisraskoeie beter (P<0.05) as beide Angus en Hereford koeie. Kalwers van kruisraskoeie was gemiddeld 8 % swaarder met speen as kalwers van suiwerraskoeie. Kruisraskoeie met intermediêre vlakke van Charolaisbydrae het geneig om die swaarste kalwers te speen. Die data is verder ook geanaliseer om die optimum vlakke van Charolais en Angus, deur die passing van 'n enkeleienskap dieremodel, te bepaal. Die beraamde oorerflikhede is vervolgens gebruik om direkte en mateme teelwaardes (Beste liniêre onsydige voospellers ) vir individuele diere te voorspel. Beste liniêre onsydige beramings (BLUE's) is ook vir elke eienskap bereken. Die regressies van BLUE's, direkte en mateme teelwaardes per genetiese groep bereken, is vervolgens op proporsie Charolais en Angus bydraes onderskeidelik gepas. BLUE's vir BW, WW en ADG het met toename In Charolaisproporsie toegeneem, terwyl dit met toename in Angusbydrae afgeneem het. In die algemeen het mateme teelwaardes met toename in die bydrae van beide rasse toegeneem. Direkte teelwaardes van die Charolais het toegeneem en maksimum waardes by 35, 38 en 45 % proporsie Charolais vir onderskeidelik BW, WW en ADG bereik. Vir die Angus is geen optimum proporsie in dié spesifieke omgewing gevind nie. In dié kudde word intermediêre Charolais vlakke vir die verbetering van voorspeense eienskappe aanbeveel.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52285
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