Fungal enzymes as animal feed additives

Lakay, Francisco Martin (2001-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The use of fungal enzymes as ruminant feed digestibility enhancers was investigated. Currently, ruminants may not digest 38 to 80 % of fibrous forages' content. A renewed interest in the potential of feed enzymes for ruminants was prompted by the high costs of livestock production, together with the availability of newer enzyme preparations. Direct application of enzyme preparations can improve in vitro dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) degradation, indicating that direct-fed fibrolytic enzymes may be effective in enhancing in vivo digestion of forages. Two commercial enzyme products, Fibrozyme and Celluclast, and fungal extracellular enzyme extracts from Aureobasidium pullulans, Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus aculeatus, and Thermomyces lanuginosus were evaluated for enhancing in vitro feed digestibility. Fibrozyme addition to both wheat straw and lucerne hay did not improve their in vitro digestibilities, even after a two hour pre-incubation period. The four fungal enzyme extracts did not enhance wheat straw's digestibility, but marginal increases were evident for lucerne hay. Celluclast addition resulted in marginal increases in the digestibility of both oat hay and oat silage, with no enhanced effect on lucerne hay and NaOH-treated wheat straw. No relationship could be found between the level of enzyme activity and the degree of feed digestion in the in vitro assay. Enzyme hydrolysis with Celluclast, in the absence of rumen fluid, gave more conclusive results. All the feed samples tested showed a positive response to Celluclast addition, even the less digestible feeds, namely sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw. In vitro results show that the assays were unsuccessful, because almost all of the experiments conducted showed inconclusive results. Alternative feed evaluation assays, which include the in vivo, in sacco and in situ methods of analysis, as well as gas production measurement and in vitro analysis with the DAISyII system, should be evaluated. A more detailed study of feed digestibility should be motivated by determining which feeds are hydrolysable, their chemical composition, i.e. how accessible the feeds are, and also evaluation of feed mixtures. The enzyme supplements also need to be evaluated for optimum temperature and pH, as well as the compilation of enzyme cocktails.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van swamensieme om die verteerbaarheid van herkouervoere te verhoog, is ondersoek. Tussen 38 en 80 % van veselagtige voere se inhoud is tans onverteerbaar. 'n Hernieude belangstelling in die potensiaal van voerensieme vir herkouers word deur die hoë koste van veeproduksie, asook die beskikbaarheid van nuwe ensiempreparate gedryf Direkte byvoeging van ensiempreparate kan die in vitro droëmateriaal (DM) en neutrale onoplosbare vesel (NOV) vertering verbeter, wat daarop dui dat fibrolitiese ensieme wat direk gevoer word, effektief mag wees tydens die in vivo vertering van voer. Twee kommersiële ensiemprodukte, Fibrozyme en Celluclast, en die vier ekstrasellulêre ensieme van vier swamme, naamlik Aureobasidium pullulans, Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus aculeatus, en Thermomyces lanuginosus is vir hul vermoë om die in vitro verteerbaarheid van voere te verbeter getoets. Byvoeging van Fibrozyme by beide koringstrooi en lusernhooi het geen verbetering in hulonderskeie in vitro verteerbaarheid tot gevolg gehad nie, selfs nie eens na 'n twee uur vooraf inkubasieperiode nie. Koringstrooi se verteerbaarheid is nie verbeter deur die byvoeging van die vier swam-ensiempreparate nie, maar 'n minimale verbetering is wel waargeneem in die verteerbaarheid van lusernhooi. Byvoeging van Celluclast het 'n minimale verbetering in beide hawerhooi en hawerkuilvoer se verteerbaarheid tot gevolg gehad, maar geen effek op lusernhooi of NaOH-behandelde koringstrooi se verteerbaarheid nie. Geen verwantskap is tussen die vlak van ensiemaktiwiteit en die mate van vertering tydens die in vitro toets gevind nie. Ensiematiese afbraak met Celluclast, in die afwesigheid van rumenvloeistof, het meer konkrete resultate gelewer. Al die voermonsters het 'n positiewe respons op die byvoeging van Celluclast getoon, selfs ook die minder verteerbare voere, nl. suikerrietbagasse en koringstrooi. In die wyer konteks was die resulate van die in vitro verteringstoetse egter onbeduidend as gevolg van groot variasie in die metings. Alternatiewe voerontledingstoetse, wat moontlik beter resultate mag lewer, sluit in in vivo, in sacco en in situ analises, asook die meting van gasproduksie en in vitro analise met die DAISyII sisteem. 'n Meer uitgebreide studie van voerverteerbaarheid wat die bepaling van die afbraak van voere, hul chemiese samestelling, met ander woorde toeganklikheid van voere, en die ondersoek van voermengsels behels, behoort aandag te geniet. Die ensiemmengsels behoort ook ten opsigte van samestelling, optimum temperatuur en pH ondersoek teword.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52280
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