Food micro-enterprises for food security in an urban slum community in East London : development of an awareness-creating programme

Cress-Williams, Lise (2001-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to develop the content of a programme to increase the awareness of women in Duncan Village of I) the potential role of food micro-enterprises in the improvement of food security; 2) the consumer demand concerning the operations of food micro-enterprises; and 3) appropriate microenterprise training programmes available in the greater East-London area. This was based on an identified need for the inclusion of a module on food security in a comprehensive programme to prevent growth failure in 0 to 24-month-old children attending local government clinics in Duncan Village by improving the capacity of mothers or primary caregivers to care for their children. Food security is defined as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. The potential role of food micro-enterprises in the improvement of food security was established through a literature review. It was established that street foods contribute to individual food security by providing food where people work or congregate at cheap prices, thus increasing availability. It also helps in meeting energy and nutritional needs if safe, nutritious food is provided. The main method by which it increases an individual's access to food is by supplying an income to food micro-enterprise owners if they sell street foods. The consumer demand concerning the operations (including the products) of food micro-enterprises was determined through personal interviews with the customers and non-customers of food micro-enterprises in Duncan Village, using a structured questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-nine customers and 129 non-customers were selected using a combination of cluster and convenience sampling. Food microenterprises operating at the schools and on pavements in Duncan Village and at the taxi rank in East London were included. The results of this particular survey indicate that the consumer behaviour is influenced by the trade area where the customers purchase their food, the age and gender of the customers as well as the friendliness of the vendor. The product choice of consumers was mostly determined by taste, price and how filling the food is. There was general satisfaction with the operating times of, and the products sold by, food micro-enterprises. Street food consumers were least satisfied with the locations where the enterprises were situated. The dusty environment was given as a reason for dissatisfaction. Further, cleanliness of the food, the vendor and the environment were the main problems cited, especially by the non-customers. The appropriateness of micro-enterprise training programmes available in the greater East London area for current and prospective food micro-enterprise owners in Duncan Village was determined by compiling a profile of food micro-enterprises, their owners and their business operations in Duncan Village; identifying the features of the ideal training programme for current and prospective food microenterprise owners in Duncan Village; investigating the supply of micro-enterprise training in the greater East London area; and evaluating the appropriateness of the identified training programmes. The profile of food micro-enterprises in Duncan Village owned by women, included a profile of the owners, the enterprise itself as well as the business operations thereof. The data were gathered by means ofa personal interview (using a structured questionnaire) with the owners of food micro-enterprises. The enterprises included in the study were operated by women producing and trading processed foods from non-permanent structures at schools and on pavements in Duncan Village, as well as at the taxi ranks in East London. Systematic sampling techniques were used to select food micro-enterprises at the schools while all the enterprises at the pavements and at the taxi rank were included. This resulted in the inclusion of 41 food micro-enterprises. The results indicated that the profiles of these owners do not differ significantly from micro-enterprise owners operating in the informal sector elsewhere in South Africa. Furthermore, they indicated a clear need for training in all aspects regarding their business operations. The identification of the features of the ideal micro-enterprise training programme for the training of current and prospective female food micro-enterprise owners operating in Duncan Village was based on the profiles of street food consumers and food micro-enterprise owners, discussions with experts and on the literature. The identified features were used for the development of a framework to evaluate the appropriateness of micro-enterprise training in the greater East London area for current and prospective food micro-enterprise owners in Duncan Village. The supply of micro-enterprise training in the greater East London area for food micro-enterprise owners was investigated using a structured questionnaire, completed during a personal interview with the training managers of the organisations. All governmental and non-governmental organisations in the area offering training programmes with the objective to motivate and enable persons to establish a microenterprise in the informal sector; or with the objective to enable established micro-enterprises to operate more efficiently within the informal sector, were included in the study population. These organisations were identified through snowball sampling and resulted in ten organisations and 17 programmes being included. Subsequently, the appropriateness of micro-enterprise training programmes available in the greater East London area for current and prospective food micro-enterprise owners in Duncan Village was evaluated using the Evaluation Framework. The results indicate that only one programme, combining business management and cooking skills, could be rated as appropriate for current and prospective food microenterprise owners in Duncan Village. Five other programmes could be rated as moderately appropriate for particular groups. These programmes, with the exception of one, included business management skills and no cooking skills. The remaining programmes were rated as either not very appropriate or inappropriate for current and prospective food micro-enterprise owners in Duncan Village. It is concluded that a need for the mentioned awareness-creating programme exists. Furthermore, it is recommended that the programme developed in this research, be used as basis for the household food security module of the comprehensive programme.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die studie was die ontwikkeling van 'n program om die bewustheid van vroue in Duncan Village ten opsigte van 1) die bydrae wat voedsel mikro-ondernemings tot die verbetering van voedsel sekuriteit kan lewer; 2) verbruikers se behoeftes betreffende die bedrywighede van voedsel mikroondernemings; en 3) toepaslike mikro-onderneming opleidingprogramme in die groter Oos Londen area te verhoog. Die behoefte om 'n module oor voedselsekuriteit in 'n omvattende intervensie program in te sluit, is reeds geïdentifiseer. Hierdie intervensie program het ten doeI om groeivertraging in 0 tot 24 maande oue kinders, wat munisipale klinieke in Duncan Village besoek, te voorkom deur die versorgingkapasiteit van hul moeders of primêre versorgers te verhoog. Voedselsekuriteit word gedefinieer as toegang deur alle mense, ten alle tye, tot genoegsame voedsel vir 'n aktiewe, gesonde lewe. Die potensiële rol wat voedsel mikro-ondernemings in die verbetering van voedselsekuriteit kan speel, is deur middel van 'n literatuuroorsig vasgestel. Daar is vasgestel dat die voedsel wat deur hierdie ondernemings verkoop word tot individuele voedselsekuriteit bydra deurdat dit goedkoop voedsel beskikbaar stel by plekke waar mense werk of andersins bymekaar kom. Indien veilige en voedsame voedsel voorsien word, kan dit help om energie- en voedingbehoeftes te bevredig. Die belangrikste metode waardeur dit 'n individu se toegang tot voedsel verhoog, is deur 'n inkomste aan die eienaars van voedsel mikro-ondernemings te verskaf. Verbruikers se behoeftes betreffende die bedrywighede, insluitend produkte, van voedsel mikroondernemings is met behulp van gestruktureerde vraelyste tydens persoonlike onderhoude met die kopers en nie-kopers van voedsel van hierdie ondernemings, bepaal. Eenhonderd nege-en-twintig kopers en niekopers is onderskeidelik geselekteer deur 'n kombinasie van bondel- en geriefssteekproefneming te gebruik. Die voedsel mikro-ondernemings wat handel gedryf het by skole en op sypaadjies in Duncan Village, asook dié by die taxi staanplek in Oos Londen, is in hierdie steekproef ingesluit. Die resultate van hierdie opname toon aan dat verbruikergedrag bepaal word deur die gebied waar verbruikers hul kos koop, die geslag en ouderdom van die verbruiker, en die vriendelikheid van die verkoper. Verbruikers se produkkeuse word grootliks bepaal deur die smaak, koste en die vullingsvermoë van die voedsel. Verbruikers was oor die algemeen tevrede met die bedryfsure en die produkte van voedsel mikroondernemings. Hulle was egter die minste tevrede met die area waar die ondernemings bedryf word, hoofsaaklik vanweë die stowwerigheid van die omgewing. Nie-kopers in die besonder het die higiëne van die voedsel, die verkoper en die omgewing as hul grootste bronne van kommer bestempel. Die toepaslikheid van beskikbare mikro-onderneming opleidingprogramme in die groter Oos Londen omgewing vir huidige en voornemende eienaars van voedsel mikro-ondernemings in Duncan Village is geëvalueer deur die volgende stappe uit te voer: 'n Profiel van voedsel mikro-ondernemings, met inbegrip van die eienaars en die besigheidsaktiwiteite, is saamgestel. Die eienskappe van die ideale opleidingprogram vir huidige en voornemende eienaars van voedsel mikro-ondernemings in Duncan Village is geïdentifiseer, die beskikbaarheid van mikro-onderneming opleiding in die groter Oos Londen omgewing is ondersoek en die toepaslikheid van die geïdentifiseerde programme is geëvalueer. Die profiel van voedsel mikro-ondernemings in Duncan Village, het 'n profiel van die eienaars, die onderneming self en die besigheidbedrywighede ingesluit. Die data is ingesamel deur gestruktureerde vraelyste gedurende 'n persoonlike onderhoud met die eienaars van voedsel mikro-ondernemings te voltooi. Die ondernemings wat in die studie ingesluit is, is bestuur deur vroue wat voedsel vervaardig en verkoop vanaf nie-permanente strukture by die skole en op die sypaadjies in Duncan Village, asook die taxi staanplek in Oos Londen. Sistematiese steekproefnemingmetodes is gebruik om die voedsel mikroondernemings by die skole te selekteer. Al die ondernemings wat vanaf die sypaadjies in Duncan Village en die taxi staanplek in Oos Londen bedryf is, is ingesluit. Een-en-veertig voedsel mikroondernemings is in die studie populasie ingesluit. Die resultate het aangedui dat die profiel van die eienaars nie wesentlik verskil het van dié van algemene mikro-onderneming eienaars in die informele sektor elders in Suid Afrika nie. Bykans alle eienaars het aangedui dat daar by hulle 'n behoefte bestaan vir opleiding in alle aspekte rondom die bestuur van hulle besighede. Die eienskappe van die ideale mikro-onderneming opleidingprogram vir huidige en potensiële eienaars (vroulik) van voedsel mikro-ondernemings in Duncan Village, is gebaseer op die profiele van die verbruikers en eienaars van voedsel mikro-ondernemings, besprekings met kundiges op die gebied en relevante literatuur. Die geïdentifiseerde eienskappe is gebruik vir die ontwikkeling van 'n raamwerk om die toepaslikheid van mikro-onderneming opleidingprogramme in die groter Oos Londen area te evalueer. Die beskikbaarheid van mikro-onderneming opleiding programme in die groter Oos Londen omgewing, vir voedsel mikro-onderneming eienaars, is met behulp van 'n gestruktureerde vraelys wat tydens 'n persoonlike onderhoud met die opleidingbestuurders van die organisasies voltooi is, ondersoek. Alle regerings- en nie-regerings organisasies in die omgewing wat opleidingprogramme met die doel om persone te motiveer en in staat te stel om 'n voedsel mikro-onderneming in die informele sektor te vestig, of om 'n gevestigde voedsel mikro-onderneming meer effektief te bedryf, aanbied, is in die studie populasie ingesluit. Tien organisasies en 17 programme is deur middel van sneeubal steekproefneming geïdentifiseer en ingesluit. Die toepaslikheid van beskikbare mikro-onderneming opleidingprogramme in die groter Oos Londen omgewing is deur middel van die Evaluering Raamwerk geëvalueer. Die resultate het aangedui dat slegs een program wat ondernemingsbestuur- en voedsel voorbereidingsvaardighede gekombineer het, as toepaslik vir huidige en voornemende voedsel mikro-onderneming eienaars beskou kon word. Vyf ander programme kan as redelik toepaslik vir sekere groepe gesien word. Almal behalwe een van hierdie programme het ondernemingsbestuurvaardighede ingesluit, maar geen voedsel voorbereidingsvaardighede nie. Die oorblywende programme is as nie baie toepaslik of geensins toepaslik vir huidige en voornemende eienaars van voedsel mikro-ondernemings in Duncan Village geëvalueer. Daar is tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat daar 'n behoefte bestaan vir die bogenoemde bewusmakingprogram. Daar word verder aanbeveel dat die program wat in hierdie navorsing ontwikkel is, as 'n basis vir die huishoudelike voedselsekuriteit module in die omvattende intervensie program gebruik word.

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