Female apparel shopping behaviour within a multi-cultural consumer society : variables, market segments, profiles and implications

Du Preez, R. Ronel) (2001-12)

Dissertation (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Female apparel shopping behaviour in a multi-cultural consumer society is a complex phenomenon. This study set out to identify the variables that influence female apparel shopping behaviour in a multi-cultural consumer society and to determine whether distinct clusters of female apparel shoppers could be identified. Three theoretical models from the two study disciplines, Consumer Behaviour and Clothing and Textiles, were investigated, i.e. the Sproles Model of Fashion Adoption, the Engel-Blackwell-Miniard Model of Consumer Decision-Process Behaviour and De Klerk's Clothing Consumer Decision-making Model. These models were synthesised and developed further into a new conceptual theoretical model of variables influencing female apparel shopping behaviour in a multi-cultural consumer society. The Macro conceptual theoretical model presented the variables under market dominated variables, market and consumer interaction variables and consumer dominated variables. The scope of the study was delimited by the choice of two primary variables under each classification, for further investigation. The variables investigated were: the place of distribution, the apparel product, shopping orientation, patronage behaviour, socio-cultural influences (family, lifestyle and culture) and demographics. An overview of the South African apparel industry was provided and future trends in retailing were highlighted. Literature on shopping orientation as a variable was extensively studied, resulting in a proposed new classification system. Lifestyle and cultural consciousness, i.e. the individualist and collectivist orientation, and the impact thereof on female apparel shopping behaviour were investigated. Data for this exploratory study were generated by means of a store-intercept research method. A questionnaire was developed and trained fieldworkers undertook in-store interviews with approximately eight hundred female apparel shoppers representative of three population groups, African/black, coloured and white. The data analysis yielded acceptable questionnaire reliability and multivariate statistics showed shopping orientation and lifestyle to be multi-dimensional constructs with three components each. The three shopping orientation components were labelled shopping selfconfidence and enjoyment; credit-prone, brand-conscious and fashion innovator and local store patronage. A Yuppie lifestyle, apparel-orientated lifestyle and a traditional lifestyle were the three labels ascribed to the lifestyle components. Three clusters of female apparel shoppers were formed by means of cluster analysis, according to the three components of lifestyle and shopping orientation respectively, the two cultural consciousness scales and eleven patronage behaviour items. A demographic profile of each cluster completed the typology of the three female apparel shopper groups. Group one was the largest (49%) and was labelled Actualisers. Group two (28%) was labelled Strugglers and group three (22%) Aspirationals. The female apparel shopper could therefore be successfully segmented into distinct market segments with statistically significant differences in profiles. The profiles showed similarities to international and South African typology research. The results are presented in a conceptual model. The following main implications for manufacturers, marketers, retailers, researchers, educators and students can be stated: .:. Knowledge regarding consumers will be of paramount importance for survival in the competitive and more globally orientated 21st century . •:. The female apparel market is not homogeneous. Different groups of consumers require different types of products and will evaluate them differently. Modern technology such as CAD, EDI, QR and CIM should be implemented to assist stakeholders in this regard. Fashion changes rapidly and if the window of opportunity is not seized, it is lost . •:. Different advertising and marketing strategies are necessary to reach the various female apparel shopper groups. Special attention should be given to advertising approaches and media vehicles that will gain the attention of the various groups . •:. Electronic retailing and marketing will form a large part of future retailing and marketing activities. Stakeholders should be geared towards seizing these opportunities for growth. .:. Researchers, educators and students will benefit from the application of the Conceptual Theoretical Model - a Macro perspective. It could provide a conceptual framework for curriculum development, be used as an evaluation tool and assist in the understanding of the complexities of variables impacting on female apparel shopping behaviour in a multi-cultural consumer society. Recommendations for future research were made in order to encourage researchers to research the complex nature of female apparel shopping behaviour in a multi-cultural consumer society scientifically.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vroueklere aankoopgedrag in 'n multi-kulturele verbruikersgemeenskap is 'n komplekse fenomeen. Hierdie studie poog om die veranderlikes wat vroueklere aankoopgedrag in 'n multi-kulturele verbruikersgemeenskap beïnvloed, te identifiseer en om te bepaal of onderskeibare groepe vroulike verbruikers geïdentifiseer kan word. Drie teoretiese modelle vanuit die twee dissiplines, naamlik Verbruikersgedrag en Kleding en Tekstiele, is ondersoek, naamlik: die Sproles Model van Modeaanvaarding (Sproles Model of Fashion Adoption), die Engel-Blackwell-Miniard model van Verbruikersbesluitnemingsproses-gedrag (Engel-Blackwell-Miniard Model of Consumer Decision-Process Behaviour) asook De Klerk se Kledingverbruikerbesluitnemingsmodel. (De Klerk's Clothing Consumer Decision-making Model). Hierdie modelle is gesintetiseer en verder ontwikkel tot 'n nuwe konseptueie teoretiese model van veranderlikes wat vroueklere-aankoopgedrag in 'n multi-kulturele verbruikersgemeenskap beïnvloed. Die Makro konseptueie teoretiese model orden veranderlikes onder mark-gedomineerde veranderlikes, mark- en verbruiker-interaksie-veranderlikes en verbruiker-gedomineerde veranderlikes. Die omvang van die studie is begrens deur die keuse van twee primêre veranderlikes onder elke groepering vir verdere studie. Die bestudeerde veranderlikes sluit die volgende in: plek van distribusie, die klereproduk, aankooporiëntasie, winkelvoorkeurgedrag, sosio-kulturele invloede (familie, lewenstyl en kultuur) asook demografie. 'n Oorsig van die Suid-Afrikaanse kledingindustrie word gegee en toekomstige tendense in die kleinhandel word uitgelig. Literatuur rakende aankooporiëntasie as veranderlike is breedvoerig bestudeer en resulteer in 'n nuwe klassifikasie stelsel. Lewenstyl en kulturele bewustheid, nl. die individualistiese versus kollektivistiese oriëntasie, en die impak daarvan op vroue se klere-aankoopgedrag is ondersoek. Data vir hierdie verkennende navorsing is verkry deur respondente in winkels te nader (store-intercept research method). Vir hierdie eksploratiewe studie is 'n vraelys ontwikkel en opgeleide veldwerkers het onderhoude (binne winkels) met ongeveer aghonderd vroue klereverbruikers, verteenwoordigend van drie populasie groepe, nl. Swart, Kleurling en Blank gevoer. Die data ontleding dui op aanvaarbare vraelys betroubaarheid. Die meervoudige veranderlike statistiek resultate toon aan dat aankooporiëntasie en lewenstyl multi-dimensionele konstrukte is, met onderskeidelik drie komponente elk. Die drie aankooporiëntasie komponente is benoem as aankoop selfvertroue en genot (shopping self-confidence and enjoyment); krediet geneigdheid, handelsmerk bewustheid sowel as mode innoveerder (credit prone, brand conscious and fashion innovator) en plaaslike winkelvoorkeur (local store patronage). Die Yuppie lewenstyl (Yuppie lifestyle); klere georienteerde lewenstyl (apparel orientated lifestyle) en tradisionele lewenstyl (traditional lifestyle) was die drie name wat aan die lewenstyle komponente toegeskryf is. Drie groepe vroulike klere aankopers is gevorm met behulp van trosanalise. Die trosanalise is gedoen op grond van die drie komponente van lewenstyl en aankooporiëntasie onderskeidelik, die twee kulturele bewustheid skale en die elf winkelvoorkeur gedrag items. Die tipering van die drie groepe is aangevul deur 'n demografiese profiel. Groep een was die grootste (49%) en is genoem Aktualiseerders (Actualisers). Groep twee (28%) is genoem Sukkelaars (StruggIers) en groep drie (22%) Aspireerders (Aspirationals). Die vroulike klere aankoper kon derhalwe suksesvol gesegmenteer word in duidelik onderskeibare segmente met statisties beduidende verskille in die profiele. Die profiele toon ooreenkomste met internasionale en Suid-Afrikaanse tipologie navorsing. konseptueie model. Die resultate word aangetoon in 'n Die volgende hoof implikasies vir vervaardigers, bemarkers, kleinhandelaars, navorsers, opvoedkundiges en studente kan gestel word: .:. Kennis rakende verbruikers sal krities wees vir oorlewing in die kompeterende en globaal georiënteerde 21ste eeu. •:. Die vroue klere mark is nie homogeen nie. Verskillende groepe verbruikers vereis verskillende tipes produkte en sal dit derhalwe verskillende evalueer. Moderne tegnologie soos rekenaar gesteunde ontwerp, elektroniese data interaksie, vinnige respons en rekenaar geintegreerde vervaardiging moet geïmplimenteer word ten einde alle belanghebbendes te ondersteun in hierdie verband. Mode verander vinnig en indien geleenthede nie aangegryp word nie, is dit verlore . •:. Verskillende bemarking en reklame strategieë is nodig ten einde die verskillende groepe vroue klere verbruikers te bereik. Spesifieke aandag moet geskenk word aan die advertensie aanslag en media voertuie wat die aandag van die onderskeie groepe sal trek . •:. Elektroniese kleinhandel en bemarking sal 'n groot komponent van die toekomstige kleinhandel en bemarkingsaktiwiteite beslaan. Belanghebbendes moet ingestel wees om hierdie geleenthede vir groei aan te gryp . •:. Navorsers, opvoeders en studente sal voordeel trek uit die toepassing van die Konseptueie Teoretiese Model - 'n Makro Perspektief. Hierdie model kan dien as 'n konseptueie raamwerk waarbinne kurrikulering kan plaasvind, asook aangewend word as evaluasie instrument. Die model kan ook hulp verleen ten einde die komplekse aard van die veranderlikes wat vroue klere aankoopgedrag beïnvloed in 'n multi-kulturele verbruikergemeenskap, te verstaan. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gemaak ten einde toekomstige navorsers aan te moedig om op 'n wetenskaplik verantwoordbare wyse die komplekse aard van vroueklere-aankoopgedrag binne 'n multi-kulturele verbruikersgemeenskap, na te vors.

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