Die voorkoms van seksuele teistering in die staatsdiens

Du Plessis, Jan A. (2001-03)

Thesis (MAdmin)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Sexual harassment has different meanings for different individuals. This is clearly evident from the wide variety of definitions that are noted on the theme. Sexual harassment can be divided into two main categories. Firstly there is quid pro quo harassment which boils down to the fact that an agreement must be established between two individuals where sexual favours are exchanged for more favourable work benefits. The next sexual harassment category is where one individual makes the working environment of the next individual intolerable in order to solicit sexual favours. Sexual harassment can be explained using a number of models. These models vary from the point of departure that sexual harassment is driven by the individual's sex drive to a model where the economy has an influence on the individual's behaviour. None of the existing models, however, fully explain sexual harassment and sexual harassment can best be explained using a synthesis between various models. These models have the advantage that a better understanding of the subject exists and could thus ease the prevention and management of sexual harassment in the workplace. Sexual harassment manifests over a wide varitey of actions. A difference can be drawn between direct and indirect harassment. Direct harassment could be physical and lead to charges of sexual assault or rape. Indirect harassment could be where an individual through his/her actions causes another individual to feel uncomfortable without the action being directed at that specific individual. It could be that sexually explicit pictures are being displayed without the intention to harass but that the mere displaying of the pictures is experienced as harassment by certain individuals. There are various actions leading up to sexual harassment. However, it was found that sexual harassment is not romantic attention with the view of courting towards a consenting love affair. Consenting love affairs may also exist in the workplace and although not prohibited by any rule or prescript the affair could end and then transform towards sexual harassment. Sexual harassment was found not to be restricted to one sex only. Although the profiles of male and female harassers differ both can present themselves as harassers. Sexual harassment is not restricted to harassing the opposite sex only and man to man and woman to woman harassment is also found. In the South African Civil Service there are certain acts that regulate sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is, however, not addressed by definition and general deductions must be made that could include atcs of sexual harassment. This was tested by contacting a variety of government departments and provincial administrations to gain insight into their sexual harassment policies. The majortiy of respondents did not have a formal or approved policy on sexual harassment. The sexual harassment policies that were \ analysed revealed certain inadequicies and a scientifically based questionnaire was developed to determine the prevelance of sexual harassment in the workplace. Normatively speaking certain guidelines or a definition of sexual harassment should exist to show which conduct or behaviour can be construed as sexual harassment. An employee's complaints procedure should at least contain a mechanism to ensure that policy is not ignored, that alternative methods of reporting sexual harassment are being catered for and that adequate training is provided to ensure that all employees are au fait with the complaints procedure. Confidentiality is a critical element and the employer should try to maintain this throughout the investigation. Investigation officers should have a certain knowledge on the theme of sexual harassment. The appointment of an investigation officer should also be sex sensitive. The imposing of sanctions after the investigation into complaints of sexual harassment should be done with due cognisance of the degree of seriousness of the violation and other mitigating and extenuating circumstances.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Seksuele teistering het verskillende betekenisse vir verskillende indiwidue. Hierdie kom duidelik na vore uit die wye verskeidenheid van definisies wat oor die tema opgeteken is. Seksuele teistering kan in twee hoof groeperings ingedeel word. Eerstens is daar quid pro quo-teistering wat daarop neerkom dat daar 'n ooreenkoms tussen twee indiwidue tot stand moet kom, waar seksuele gunste vir werksvoordele uitgeruil word. Die ander tipe seksuele teistering is waar die een indiwidu die werksomgewing vir die volgende indiwidu ondraagbaar maak om die indiwidu tot seksuele gunste te laat toegee. Seksuele teistering kan aan die hand van 'n aantal modelle verklaar word. Hierdie modelle wissel vanaf die uitgangspunt dat dit deur die indiwidu se seksdrang aangedryf word tot waar die ekonomie 'n invloed op die indiwidu se gedrag kan hê. Nie een van die bestaande modelle gee egter 'n volledige verklaring van seksuele teistering nie en kan seksuele teistering aan die hand van 'n sintese tussen die modelle verklaar word. Hierdie modelle het die voordeel dat dit 'n beter begrip van die onderwerp stel en kan die voorkoming of bestuur van seksuele teistering in die werksplek hierdeur vergemaklik word. Seksuele teistering manifesteer oor 'n wye front van aksies. Daar kan 'n onderskeid tussen direkte en indirekte teistering getref word. Direkte teistering kan fisies wees en aanleiding tot klagtes van seksuele aanranding of verkragting wees. Indirekte teistering kan wees waar 'n indiwidu deur sy/haar optrede 'n volgende indiwidu ongemaklik laat voel sonder dat dit spesifiek teen daardie indiwidu gemik is. Dit sou kon wees dat seksueel eksplisiete prente sonder die bedoeling om te teister, opgeplak word, maar dat dit deur bepaalde indiwidue as teisterend ervaar word. Daar is verskeie aanleidende oorsake tot seksuele teistering. Seksuele teistering is egter gevind om nie romatiese aandag te wees met die oog op hofmakery vir 'n konsente liefdesverhouding nie. Konsente liefdesverhoudings kan ook in die werksplek voorkom en alhoewel dit nie teen enige reël indruis nie, kan die verhouding tot niet gaan en dan in seksuele teistering oorgaan. Seksuele teistering is gevind om nie net tot een geslag beperk te wees nie. Alhoewel die profiele van 'n manlike en vroulike teisteraar verskil, kan beide geslagte as teisteraar voordoen. Seksuele teistering is ook nie net tot die teenoorgestelde geslag beperk nie en kom man-tot-man en vrou-tot-vrou teistering ook voor. In die Suid-Afrikaanse Staatsdiens is daar bepaalde wetgewing wat seksuele teistering reguleer. Seksuele teistering word per se egter nie by definisie aangespreek nie en moet daar meer algemene afleidings gemaak word wat die oortreding van seksuele teistering sou kon insluit. Hierdie is getoets deur 'n verskeidenheid staatsdepartemente en provinsiale administrasies te nader om insae in hul seksueleteistering-beleide te kry. Die meerderheid respondente het nie oor 'n formele of goedgekeurde beleid oor seksuele teistering beskik nie. Die seksueleteistering-beleide wat wel ontleed was, het bepaalde gebreke getoon en is daar 'n wetenskaplik fundeerde vraelys ontwikkel om die voorkoms van seksuele teistering in die werksplek te bepaal. Normatief beskou behoort daar riglyne of 'n definisie te bestaan om aan te toon watter gedrag of optrede as seksuele teistering beskou kan word. 'n Werkgewer se klagteprosedure behoort minstens 'n meganisme te bevat om te verseker dat indiwidue nie beleid ignoreer nie, daar alternatiewe metodes voor voorsiening gemaak word om seksuele teistering te rapporteer en dat daar voldoende opleiding verskaf word om te verseker dat alle werknemers met die klagteprosedure vertroud is. Die handhawing van konfidensialiteit is 'n kritiese element en die werkgewer behoort te poog om gedurende ondersoek die hoogste graad van konfidensialiteit te handhaaf. Ondersoekbeamptes behoort 'n bepaalde kundigheid oor die onderwerp van seksuele teistering te hê. Die aanwys van 'n ondersoekbeampte behoort geslagsensitief gedoen te word. Die oplê van sanksies na ondersoek van klagtes van seksuele teistering behoort die ernstigheidsgraad van die oortreding en ander verswarende of versagtende getuienis in ag te neem.

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