Die invloed van 'n historiese ontwikkelingspatroon op hedendaagse wetgewing en grondhervorming : die wet op landelike gebiede (Wet 9 van 1987) en sy historiese probleme

Boonzaaier, Igor Quinton (2001-12)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Nobody can deny the need which prevails among black South Africans of gaining access to land. In South Africa, just like elsewhere, the land issue plays an equally important role to economic and political issues. However, the land issue is much more emotional, and has the potential to unleash forces which could impact negatively on the economy and the political situation. Bearing this in mind, the ANC-government placed the issue of land reform on the national agenda after assuming power in 1994. Within the broad framework of the program provision is made for previously disadvantaged people to be given access to agricultural land. However, the focus on new entrants to the agricultural sector diverts the attention somewhat from the fact that there are people and groupings who were also disadvantaged under apartheid, but who have had a degree of access to land. This study focuses on the 23 so-called Rural Areas which are scattered over four provinces (Western Cape, Northern Cape, Eastern Cape and the Free State) and which are administered in terms of the Rural Areas Act, Act 9 of 1987. Since the study is no more than an overview, a synopsis is given of contributing factors which relate to the origins of each of the areas. Of importance is the role which was played by missionary societies and others in establishing these communities. The mam focus of the study is the manner in which the Rural Areas were administered. Reference is made to relevant legislation since 1909, and specifically to Act 9 of 1987. The importance thereof lies in the fact that the existence and continued application of the Act has particular constitutional implications. Furthermore, the Minster of Land Affairs, who is responsible for the implementation of the land reform program, is the (unwilling) trustee of these areas. Apart from the fact that trusteeship recalls paternalism of years gone by, the South African reality also necessitated reflection on the existence of Act 9. The rest of the study discusses the consultation process undertaken by the department of Land Affairs with the communities concerned, and the writing of legislation to replace Act 9. The Transformation of Certain Rural Areas Act, Act 94 of 1998, will replace Act 9 when certain conditions mentioned therein, have been met. The Act will end trusteeship and ensure that the communities receive ownership of their land. This will be a movement towards the ideal of the land reform process of giving access to land to all inhabitants of the country.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Niemand kan die behoefte aan toegang tot grond ontken wat onder swart Suid- Afrikaners heers nie. Nes elders, speel die grondkwessie in Suid-Afrika 'n ewe belangrike rol as ekonomiese en politieke kwessies. Die grondkwessie is egter baie meer emosioneel, met die potensiaal om kragte los te laat wat nadelig op die ekonomie en politiek kan inwerk. Gedagtig hieraan het die ANC-regering na bewindsaanvaarding in 1994 grondhervorming op die nasionale agenda geplaas deur 'n grondhervormingsprogram van stapel te stuur. Binne die breë raamwerk van die program is onder andere ruimte geskep vir die verlening van toegang tot landbougrond aan voorheen benadeeldes. Dié klem op "nuwe toetreders" tot landbou trek egter 'n mens se aandag af van die feit dat daar ander persone en groeperinge bestaan wat ook deur apartheid benadeel is, maar wat wel 'n mate van toegang tot grond gehad het. Hiedie studie fokus op die 23 sogenaamde Landelike Gebiede wat oor vier provinsies (Wes-Kaap, Noord-Kaap, Oos-Kaap en Vrystaat) van die land versprei is, en wat ingevolge die Wet op Landelike Gebiede, Wet 9 van 1987, geadministreer word. Weens die oorsigtelike aard van die studie word slegs 'n sinopsis gegee van bydraende faktore wat relevant is tot die spesifieke ontstaansgeskiedenis van elk van die gebiede. Veral van belang hier is die rol wat sendinggenootskappe en andere gespeel het in die totstandkoming van gemeenskappe. Daar word in hoofsaak gekyk na die manier waarop die Landelike Gebiede met verloop van tyd geadministreer is. Hier word verwys na die relevante wetgewing sedert 1909, met spesifieke verwysing na Wet 9 van 1987. Die belang hiervan lê in die feit dat die voortbestaan en voortgesette toepassing van die Wet bepaalde grondwetlike implikasies inhou. Daarmee saam die feit dat die Minister van Grondsake, wat verantwoordelik IS vir die implementering van die grondhervormingsprogram, die (onwillige) trustee is van die Landelike Gebiede. Benewens die feit dat trusteeskap sterk herinner aan die paternalisme van die verlede, het die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse werklikheid vereis dat herbesin word oor die voortbestaan van Wet 9. Die res van die studie bespreek die konsultasieproses van die departement van Grondsake met die betrokke gemeenskappe, en die skryf van wetgewing om Wet 9 te vervang. Die Wet op die Transformasie van Sekere Landelike Gebiede, Wet 94 van 1998 sal Wet 9 vervang wanneer aan sekere vereistes voldoen word. Die Wet het ten doelom trusteeskap te beëindig en te verseker dat die betrokke gemeenskappe seggenskap oor hul grond verkry. Sodoende sal nader beweeg word aan die ideaal van die grondhervormingsproses, naamlik die verskaffing van vrye toegang tot grond aan alle inwoners van die land.

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