Characterization in selected Xhosa novels of the 90's

Dokolwane, Kutala Primrose (2001-12)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study examines the portrayal of characters in four Xhosa novels of the 1990s. The objective is to found out whether or not characterization in the Xhosa novels of the 1990s improves. This is done with the view that past studies of characterization done before 1990 by Jafta (1978; 1996), Satyo (1978), Sirayi (1989) and Dlali (1992) gave the picture that a high percentage of writers portray characters as archetypes because of thematic concerns. This often renders characterization poor in the sense that the reader is able to predict the outcome of events through the actions of the characters. However, Zulu (1999:3) argues that with the inceptor of democracy in South Africa in 1994, African Languages literature was liberated as well from several constraints, and reveals some signs of maturing. This study is thus conducted to confirm or refute Zulu's (1999) claim that there are signs of improvement in the way writers portray characters. The study concentrates of four selected Xhosa novels published in the 1990s. The novels are selected on the criteria that they have won literary prizes and are written by prolific writers. It is found that in all four novels, Iqlina lomtshato, Kazi Ndenzeni na?, Koda Kube Nni na? and Ukhozi Olumaphiko the novelists have succeededin creating realistic, live, dynamic, complex and multidimensional characters. The change and development of characters are influenced by environmental change as a result of social, political and economic factors. However, the study also shows that some events in Ukhozi Olumphiko are implausible.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek die voorstelling van karakters in vier Xhosa novellas in die 1990s. Die hoofdoelstelling is om te bepaal of daar 'n verbetering in kwaliteit is in die Xhosa novellas in die negentiger jare. Hierdie ondersoek word gedoen in die lig van voorafgaande studies soos Jafte (1978, 1996); Satyo (1978); Sirayi (1989) and Dlali (1992) wat bevind dat 'n groot aantal skrywers, karakters in Xhosa novellas as stereoptipes voorstelop grond van die "telematiese" oorwegings at hulle het. Dit het dikwels die gevolg dat karakterisering swak is in die sin dat die leser die uiteinde van gebeurtenisse kan voorspel deur die handelinge van die karakters. Zulu (1999:3) argumenteer egter dat met die verkryging van demokrasie in Suid Afrika, is die letterkunde van die Afrikatale ook bevry, en dit vertoon tekens dat die literêre wasdom bereik. Hierdie studie word dus onderneem om Zulu (1999) se aanspraak te ondersteun of te weerlê dat daar tekens van verbetering is in die wyse waarop skrywers karakters voorstel. Die studie konsentreer op vier geselekteerde Xhosa novelles wat in die 1990s gepubliseer is. Die novelles is geselekteer volgens kriteria dat hulle literêre pryse gewen het en deur erkende skrywers geskryf is. Daar word bevind in die studie dat die skrywers in al vier die novelles, Iqlina lomtshato, Kazi Ndenzeni na?, Koda Kube Nni na? en Ukhozi Olumaphiko suksesvol was in die skep van realistiese, lewendige, ekonomiese komplekse en multi-dimensionele karakters. Die verandering en ontwikkeling van karakters word beïnvloed deur omgewingsverandering, sowel as deur sosiale, politieke en ekonomiese faktore. Dit word egter bevind dat sommige handelinge in die novelle Ukhozi Olumaphiko ongeloofwaardig is.

INTSHWANKATHELO ISIXHOSA: Lo msebenzi uphonononga ukuvezwa kwabalinganiswa kwiinoveli zesiXhosa ezine ezibhalwe ukususela kumnyaka ka-1990 ukuya ku-1999. Injongo yalo msebenzi kukuqwalasela ukuba ikho kusini na impucuko kwindlela abazotywa ngayo abalinganiswa kwezi noveli zesiXhosa zibhalwe ngomnyaka ka-1990 ukubheka phambili. Oku kwenziwa phantsi koluvo lokuba izifundo zamandulo ezimalunga nokuzotywa kwabalinganiswa ngokubhalwa nguJafta (1978;1996), uSatyo (1978) uSirayi (1989) noDlali (1992) zibonakalisa ukuba uninzi Iwababhali luveza abalinganiswa njengemizekelo esisiseko ukuzama ukubanxulumanisa nomxholo wenoveli leyo. Oku ke kubeka ukuzotywa kwabalinganiswa kwizinga eliphantsi nanjengoko umfundi aye akwazi lula ukuthelekelela iziphumo zezehlo ngokujonga iintshukumo ezi zabalinganiswa. Ukanti ke, uZulu (1999:3) uveza ukuba ukususela mhla kwamiselwa ulawulo lukawonkewonke okanye inkululeko eMzantsi Afrika ngomnyaka ka-1994, uncwadi IweeLwimi zaseAfrika Iwaye Iwakhululeka nalo, Iwaze Iwabonakalisa iimpawu zokuvuthwa. Lo msebenzi ke ujolise ekuqinisekiseni okanye ekuphikiseni ingcamango kaZulu (1999) yokuba kukho iimpawu ezibonakalisa ukuphuhla kwindlela ababhali abaveza ngayo abalinganiswa. Lo msebenzi ke uza kuqwalasela kwiinoveli zesiXhosa ezine ezikhethiweyo nezishicilelwe kwisithuba sika-1990 ukubheka phambili. Ezi noveli zikhethwe phantsi komgomo wokuba ziphumelele amabhaso oncwadi yaye zibhalwe ngoomakhwekhwetha bababhali abavunyiweyo. Kuye kwafunyaniswa into yokuba kwezi noveli zone, Iqhina lomtshato, Kazi Ndenzeni na?, Koda Kube Nini na?, kunye noKhozi Olumaphiko ababhali beenoveli baphumelele ekwakheni abalinganiswa ababonisa izinto ngobunjalo bazo, abaphilayo, abanentshukumo, abantsonkothileyo nabambaxa. Utshintsho nokuphuhla kwabalinganiswa lubangelwa kukutshintsha kweendawo abahlala kuzo ngokudalwa ziimeko zokuhlala, ezopolitiko, nezoqoqosho. Ukanti ke, ezinye zezehlo kuKhozi Olumaphiko aziqondakali ngokugqibeleleyo.

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