A pragmatic analysis of apologies in Xhosa

Mdemka, Xoliswa Leonora (2001-12)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigates the speech act of apology in Xhosa. The main aim of the study is to examine some of the characteristics of apologies in remedial interchanges based on a Xhosa corpus within the field of pragmatics. The study is concerned with the expressions people use when they apologize in Xhosa, and the effectiveness of apologies in remediating the negative effects of transgressions. In order to examine the effectiveness of apologies in Xhosa, a questionnaire has been drawn up within which students of selected High schools in the Western Cape have completed the offence and the apology. Data was collected through the selection of four High schools in the Western Cape and Grade 11 learners were asked to complete the questionnaires. In this study, these questionnaires are analyzed and assessed. The findings based on this research are presented to identify the characteristics of apologies in remedial interchanges based on a Xhosa corpus within the field of pragmatics. The study is organized as follows: Chapter 1 features the statement of the problem and the aim of the study. Chapter 2 is concerned with an overview of the theoretical framework on which the study is based, i.e. pragmatics, and within pragmatics specifically the speech act and the theory of politeness. Chapter 3 examines the speech act of apology as indicated by the literature on this speech act. Chapter 4 investigates apologies in Xhosa with attention to the apology strategies and the analysis of the Xhosa data. Chapter 5 summarizes the findings obtained from chapters 2 - 4.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek die spraakhandeling van Apologie in Xhosa. Die hoofdoelstelling van die studie is om die kenmerke van apologiee te ondersoek in die veld van die pragmatiek in remediale interaksie gebaseer op 'n Xhosa korpus. Die studie het belang by die uitdrukkings wat mense gebruik wanneer hulle apologie aanteken in Xhosa, en die doeltreffendheid van apologiee in die rernedierinq van die negatiewe effek van oortredings. Ten einde die doeltreffendheid van apoloqiee in Xhosa te ondersoek, is 'n vraelys opgestel waarin leerders van geselekteerde Hoerskole in die Wes-Kaap die oortreding- en die apologie-beskrywing moes invul. Data is versamel deur Graad 11 leerders van vier verskillende Hoerskole in die Wes-Kaap te vra om vraelyste oor Apologiee in Xhosa te voltooi. In die studie is die vraelyste ontleed en ge-evalueer. Die bevindinge wat op die navorsing gebaseer is, is aangebied ten einde die eienskappe van apoloqiee te identifiseer soos gebaseer op remediale interaksie soos dit gegrond is op die Xhosa korpus. Die studie is soos volg georganiseer: Hoofstuk 1 formuleer die probleemstelling en die doelstellings van die studie. Hoofstuk 2 bied In oorsig van die teoretiese raamwerk waarop die studie gebaseer is, dit is die spraakhandelingsteorie van beleefdheid binne die bree veld van die pragmatiek. Hoofstuk 3 eksamineer die spraakhandelingsteorie van apolcqiee soos dit verwys word in die literatuur. Hoofstuk 4 ondersoek apoloqiee in Xhosa met spesifieke aandag aan die apologiestrateqiee en die analise van die Xhosa data. Hoofstuk 5 gee 'n opsomming van die belangrikste bevindinge verkry uit hoofstukke 2 - 4.

INTSHWANKATHELO Esi sifundo sihlola isenzo ntetho sokungxengxeza esiXhoseni. Eyona njongo yesi sifundo kukuphononga ezinye zeempawu zezingxengxezo ekulungiseleleni utshintsho olubhekiselele kwingqokelela esiXhoseni kumba wePragmatiki. Isifondo esi sibhekiselele kwintetho esetyenziswa ngabantu xa bengxengxeza esiXhoseni, kunye nefuthe lezingxengxezo ekulungiseleleni iimpembelelo ezigqithisileyo ezingavumiyo. Ukuze kuphononongwe ifuthe lezingxengxezo esiXhoseni, kuye kwasungalwa iphepha lemibuzo apho kukho isono kunye nesingxengxezo. Eli phulo belisenziwa ngabafundi bezikolo ezikhethiweyo zamabanga aphakgmileyo kwiNtshona koloni. Ulwazi luqokelelwe ngokuthi kukhethwe kwizikolo ezine zamabanga aphezulu eNtshona Koloni apho abafundi bebanga le-9 bebecelwa ukuba bazalise amaphepha emibuzo. Kwesi sifundo, la maphepha emibuzo ayacalulwa kwaye ahlolwe. Iziphumo ezibhekisele kolu phando ziye zaziswe ukwalatha iimpawu zezingxengezo ukulungiselela utshintsho olubhekisele kwingqokelela yezibhalo ezithile zesiXhosa kumba we Pragmatiki. Isifundo sicangciswe ngolu hlobo: Isahluko sokuqala sibonisa intetho yengxaki kunye neenjongo zesifundo. Isahluko sesibini sinxulumene neridlela esisekelwe kuyo esi slfundo oko kukuthi, iPragmatiki yaye nalapha kwiPragmatiki ngokukodwa kwisenzo ntetho kunye nethiyori yentetho echubekileyo. Isahluko sesithathu siphonononga izenzo ntetho zokucela uxolo nje ngokuba zibonisiwe kuncwadi kwizenzo ntetho. Isahluko sesine sihlola izingxengxezo kwisiXhosa ngokunika ingqalelo kubuchule bokungxengxeza kwakunye nohlalutyo Iwezingxengxezo kwisiXhosa. Isahluko sesihlanu sishwankathela iziphumo ezifumaneke kwizahluko 2 uku ya ku 4.

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