Apatite, allanite, titanite and monazite characteristics in S-, I- A-type Cape Granites

Spicer, Esme M. (Esme Marelien) (2001-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study focussed on the comparison of accessory mineral chemistry and paragenesis in the S-, I- and A-type granites of the Cape Granite Suite. The objective of the study was to use differences in accessory mineral chemistry and petrography to give insight in the evolution, recycling and formation of continental crust as affected by the Cape Granite Suite. Because of the high partition coefficients of the REE and trace elements into accessory minerals these minerals play an important role to explain granite evolution. The accessory mineral features are used as discriminators between barren and mineralized S-, I- and A-type granites in the suite. The petrography of the suite reflects the allanite-monazite dichtonomy with allanite and titanite occurring in the I -type granites while monazite occurs in S-type granites. Monazite becomes unstable in high Ca melts such as I-type granites. Apatite occurs in all the plutons which reflects its stability over a wide range of geological conditions. Rounded crystal habits of apatite and monazite in S-type granites indicate they are relics of sedimentary source rocks. Concentric growth- and sectoral zoning, as observed with CL and SEM, are common features in minerals that crystallized in barren plutons. The overprinting of magmatic textures reflects secondary processes, such as those that occurred in mineralized plutons, by "patchy" zoning and irregular alteration rims (coronas) in the mineralized plutons' accessory minerals. CL and SEM observations revealed that REE are redistributed into these coronas. Mineral chemistry of the accessory minerals reflects mostly the whole rock chemistry and physical conditions of the magmas. (Al~ Fe) substitution in titanite is controlled by P-T conditions, together with Ca, Mn and Mg substitution which is controlled by whole-rock chemistry, are good discriminators in S- and I-type granites. LREE and Sr content in allanite discriminate between the plutons and reflect the whole-rock chemistry. Apatite, because it occurs in all the plutons, is the most useful accessory mineral for discriminating between the plutons. From previous studies it is known that ASI controls the two main substitutions in apatite: Ca+P~Si+REE and Na+REE~2Ca, Fe and Mn content in apatite (0,1 pfu Mn and 0,05 pfu Fe contents are the cut-off between S-and Itype granites) are controlled by oxidation state of the magma and Sr, REE and Mg reflect whole-rock chemistry. The content of these elements in apatite can be used as discriminators between the plutons as their ASI, oxidation states and whole-rock chemistry differ. REE patterns of monazite and allanite are LREE enriched without exception, while apatite and titanite REE patterns are mostly birdwing profiles with occurrences of LREE or HREE enrichment. These patterns are influenced by crystallization of coexisting REE-bearing phases, fractionation history of the pluton and by crystallization sequence of the accessory minerals. Phase relationships were investigated experimentally for monazite and allanite under magmatic conditions (870 °C, 1,8 kbar) in peraluminous to metaluminous granitic melts. Monazite became unstable when aqueous CaCh solutions of 0.7-7 g CaCh/10cc H20 where added to peraluminous melts (ASI> 1 ). Monazite broke down to Cl-apatite and corona textures were observed. Allanite was tested in peraluminous (ASI> 1) and metaluminous (ASI=1) melts with different P20 5 (0.08 - 0.25 wt%) concentrations. Allanite became unstable at high phosphorus and peraluminous melt conditions and broke down to LREE-P± Al, Ca, K phases. Corona (kelyphitic) textures were observed. It is also clear that phosphorus played an important role, with Al, in the melt structure as can be seen from the absence or presence of crystals in the glasses of the different melts. This is possible because adding of phosphorus to the melt results in a depression of the T of the granitic melts' liquidus. Because of an interaction of phosphorus with Si networks and formation of complexes it also depolymerize aluminosilicate melts. The solubility of monazite was also tested in aqueous solutions under atmospheric conditions and low T (100-350 °C) to investigate low TIP alteration. Solutions ofCaCb +NaCl (1:1) chlorides were very reactive and dissolved the monazite completely, while solutions of CaCb were less reactive and only partly dissolved the monazite. These experiments demonstrate the concentrations required in hydrothermal solutions to destabilize monazite and explain textures found in natural rocks. Accessory minerals are useful discriminators between S-, I- and A-type granites and also their mineralized counterparts. Discrimination does depend on what accessory minerals are present and therefore apatite is the best mineral because it occurs in all the plutons. Petrography of these minerals is an indicator of primary or secondary processes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die fokus van hierdie studie was om die mineraalchemie en paragenese van bykomstige minerale in S-, 1- en A-tipe graniete van die Kaapse Graniet Suite te vergelyk. Die doelwit van hierdie studie was om die verskille in chemie en petrografie van bykomstige minerale te gebruik as insig in die evolusie, herwinning en ontstaan van kontinentale kors soos geaffekteer deur die Kaapse Graniet Suite. Omdat SAE en spoorelemente hoe partisiekoeffisiente het vir bykomstige minerale speel hierdie minerale 'n belangrike rol om graniet evolusie te verklaar. Genoemde kenmerke van bykomstige minerale is ook gebruik om te onderskei tussen ongemineraliseerde en gemineraliseerde S-, 1- en A-tipe graniete in die suite. Die petrografie van die Kaapse Graniet Suite weerspieel die tweeledigheid van allanietmonasiet deurdat allaniet en titaniet in 1-tipe graniete en monasiet in S-tipe graniete voorkom. Monasiet word dus onstabiel in hoe Ca, 1-tipe, graniete. Apatiet kom in al drie tipes voor wat die mineraal se stabiliteit in verskeie geologiese omgewings weerspieel. Geronde kristalvorme , of reliekteksture, van apatiet en monasiet in S-tipe graniete weerspieel die sedimentere oorsprong van hierdie graniete. Konsentriese groei - en sektorale sonering kom algemeen voor in bykomstige minerale in ongemineraliseerde plutone. Sekondere veranderings rande (koronas) en onreelmatige sonering in gemineraliseerde plutone se bykomstige minerale is 'n aanduiding dat primere teksture gedeeltelik vemietig is deur sekondere prosesse. Katodeluminisensie en skandeerelektron mikroskopie ondersoeke het bewys dat SAE gehermobiliseer word na die koronas. Heelrotschemie en fisiese toestande van die magma word weerspieel in die mineraalchemie van bykomstige minerale. (Al~Fe) substitusie in titaniet word beheer deur P-T toestande en is, saam met Ca, Mn en Mg inhoud wat heelrotschemie weerspieel, goeie diskriminators in S- en 1-tipe graniete. LSAE en Sr inhoud in allaniet onderskei goed tussen plutone omdat hierdie elemente die heelrotschemie weerspieel. Omdat apatiet in al die plutone voorkom is dit die bruikbaarste mineraal om as diskriminant te gebruik. V anuit vorige werk is dit bekend dat die aluminium versadigings indeks die twee hoofsubstitusies: Ca+P~Si+SAE en Na+SAE~2Ca beheer, Fe en Mn inhoud in apatiet (0,1 pfu Mn en 0,05 pfu Fe is die afsnypunt tussen S- en 1-tipe graniete) weerspieel die oksidasietoestand van die magma en Sr, SAE en Mg weerspieel heelrotschemie. Saam kan hierdie elemente dus gebruik word as diskriminatore tussen die verskillende plutone. SAE patrone van allaniet en monasiet is sonder uitsondering verryk in die LSAE, terwyl apatiet en titaniet meestal "birdwing" profiele wys, maar kan ook verryk wees in LSAE of SSAE. Hierdie patrone word beinvloed deur kristallisasie van ander SAE-draende minerale, fraksionering van minerale uit die magma en die kristallisasie volgorde van die mineral e. Faseverwantskappe is eksperimenteel getoets tussen monasiet en allaniet in magmatiese toestande (780 °C en 1,8 kbar). Monasiet word onstabiel in 'n peralumineuse smelt (Aluminium versadigingsindeks >1) as waterig oplossings met konsentrasies van 0.7-7 g CaCh/1 0 cc H20 bygevoeg word. Cl-apatiet vorm as veranderingsproduk om die rande (koronas ). Allaniet is getoets in peralumineuse (Aluminium versadigingsindeks > 1) en metalumineuse smelte (Aluminium versadigingsindeks =1) met wisselende konsentrasies P20s (0.08 - 0.25 wt%). Allaniet het onstabiel geraak in peralumineuse smelte en hoe fosfor konsentrasies en het afgebreek na fases van LSAE+P± Ca, Al, K. Korona (kelifitiese) teksture is waargeneem. Hierdie eksperimente bewys dat fosfor, saam met Al, 'n belangrike rol speel in smeltstruktuur. Dit kan gesien word in die teenwoordig- of afwesigheid van kristalle in die glas. Dit is moontlik deurdat die byvoeging van fosfor 'n verlaging in die graniet likwidus temperatuur veroorsaak. Fosfor depolimeriseer ook aluminiumsilikaat smelte deur interaksie en kompleksvorming tussen fosfor en silika netwerke. Die oplosbaarheid van monasiet is ook getoets in waterige oplossings onder atmosferiese toestande en lae T (100-350 °C) om lae PIT veranderinge te ondersoek. 'n Versadigde oplossing van CaCh en NaCl (1:1) chloried het monasiet heeltemal opgelos terwyl 'n versadigde oplossing van CaCh monasiet net gedeeltelik opgelos het. Hierdie eksperimente dui op die konsentrasies nodig vir hidrotermale vloeistowwe waar bykomstige minerale onstabiel raak en verklaar teksture in natuurlike rotse. Bykomstige minerale kan dus gebruik word as diskriminators tussen ongemineraliseerde en gemineraliseerde plutone en ook tussen S-, I- en A-tipe graniete. Hulle kan egter net gebruik word as hulle teenwoordig is en daarom is apatiet die beste omdat dit in al die plutone aanwesig is. Petrografie is 'n aanduiding van magmatiese of sekondere prosesse.

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