The relationship between soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) seed quality and the response to molybdenum seed treatment

Bilbe, Sara Ann (2000-12)

Thesis (MScAgric.)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Experi!11entsin KwaZulu-Natal showed that seed treatment with molybdenum (Mo) could double the yield and increase the protein content by 1.9% of soybeans grown on acidic soils. However, it was also found that soybean yield at five of the localities was reduced on average by 8% after Mo seed treatment. It was surmised that the yield reductions observed after Mo seed treatment were connected to the quality of the seed used for planting. The aim of this project was to assess the relationship between seed quality and Mo seed treatment and find a fast, easy quality assessment test that could be used to adapt Mo treatments according to seed quality. The first investigation entailed assessing the quality of the seed obtained, from various seed lots, for planting. A number of different seed quality testing techniques were performed and they included the accelerated ageing test, tetrazolium test, conductivity test, standard germination test and an emergence . test planted at different depths with incubation at different temperatures. All the test results were compared with the accelerated ageing test results, to find the test most closely correlated to the accelerated ageing test, which is regarded as the most accurate indicator of soybean seed vigour. It was found that the emergence test where the seeds where planted at 10 cm presented a close correlation with the accelerated ageing test. An assessment of seed quality revealed that the four different seed lots provided seed of three significantly different levels of quality, which could be used for further investigations. The second investigation was concerned with the reaction of the seed of different quality levels to Mo seed treatment. Firstly, seeds from four different seed lots were treated with five different concentrations of Mo and planted under acidic conditions. The establishment was monitored up until six weeks, at which point the experiment was terminated. In the second planting, seeds from the four different seed lots were treated with six different concentrations of Mo and planted under optimum pH conditions. Emergence was monitored and after thinning out the remaining plants were left to mature and produce seed. The emergence percentage results from both of these two plantings did not reveal the alleged positive effect Mo seed treatment has produced in the field and no definite relationship between seed quality and Mo seed treatment was observed. The third investigation was concerned with the effect that osmoconditioning had on the reaction of seed to Mo seed treatment. Seeds from two seed lots, one of very poor quality and the other of good quality, were pre-treated with four different levels of poly-ethylene glycol (PEG 6000) and then treated with four concentrations of Mo. They were planted under optimum pH conditions and establishment was monitored. After being thinned out the remaining plants were allowed to mature and produce seed. The emergence percentage results revealed that the PEG pre-treatments greatly improved emergence percentages, especially in the poor quality seed. There were some positive effects of Mo seed treatment observed where the lower concentrations of Mo were used, but again, no definite relationship between seed quality and Mo seed treatment was found. PEG pre-treatment appeared to help make the seeds more "resistant" to the harmful effects of Mo.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Navorsing in KwaZulu-Natal het aangetoon dat saadbehandeling met molibdeen (Mo) die opbrengs van sojabone op suurgrond kan verdubbel en die proteieninhoud met tot 1.9% kan verhoog. Daar is egter ook gevind dat sojaboonopbrengs op vyf lokaliteite met gemiddeld 8% gedaal het na saadbehandeling met Mo. "nVermoede bestaan dat die opbrengsverlagings wat voorgekom het na saadbehandeling met Mo verband hou met die kwaliteit van saad wat vir die aanplantings gebruik is. Die doel van die projek was om vas te stel wat die verband tussen saadkwaliteit en Mo saadbehandeling is en om "n vinnige en maklike toets te vind om saadkwaliteit te bepaal om sodoende Mo behandelings aan te pas volgens saadkwaliteit. In die eerste eksperiment is die kwaliteit van verskillende saadlotte wat verkry is, getoets. "n Aantal verskillende tegnieke om saadkwaliteit te bepaal is uitgevoer. Die tegnieke was die versnelde verouderingstoets, tetrazoliumtoets, konduktiwiteitstoets, standaard ontkiemingstoets en "n vestigingstoets waar saad op verskillende dieptes geplant en by verskillende temperature geïnkubeer is. Die resultate van die verskillende toetse is gekorreleer met die resultate van die versnelde verouderingstoets, wat beskou word as die toets wat die beste aanduiding gee van saadgroeikragtigheid. Daar is gevind dat sade wat 10 cm diep in sand geplant is, se opkoms die beste korrelasie met die versnelde verouderingstoets toon en dus as "n goeie aanduiding van die kwaliteit van saad beskou kan word. Daar is gevind dat daar drie saadlotte is met duidelike kwaliteitsverskille wat gebruik kon word in verdere eksperimente. Die tweede eksperiment het die reaksie van saad van verskillende kwaliteitsvlakke teenoor molibdeen saadbehandeling ondersoek. Eerstens is saad van vier verskillende saadlotte behandel met vyf verskillende konsentrasies Mo en onder baie suur toestande geplant. Die vestiging is gemonitor vir ses weke waarna die eksperiment gestaak is. Daarna is saad van dieselfde vier saadlotte behandel met ses verskillende Mo konsentrasies en onder optimum pH toestande geplant. Vestiging is gemonitor en na ses weke is die plante uitgedun en twee plante per pot is gelaat om saad te produseer. Die ~ vestigingspersentasie van beide die eerste en tweede plantings het nie die verwagte positiewe effek teenoor Mo saadbehandeling getoon nie en geen betekenisvolle verwantskap tussen saadkwaliteit en Mo saadbehandeling kon waargeneem word nie. Die derde eksperiment het die invloed van osmokondisionering op die reaksie van saad op Mo saadbehandeling ondersoek. Saad van twee saadlotte, een van goeie kwaliteit en een van swak kwaliteit, is voorafbehandel met poli-etileen glikol (PEG 6000) en daarna met vier konsentrasies van Mo behandel. Die sade is onder optimum pH toestande geplant en die vestiging is gemonitor. Nadat dit uitgedun is, is die oorblywende twee plante gelaat om saad te produseer. Die vestigingspersentasies het getoon dat PEG voorafbehandelings vestiging betekenisvol verbeter, veral in die geval van lae kwaliteit saad. Daar was 'n . positiewe effek van Mo saadbehandeling waar relatief lae konsentrasies molibdeen toegedien is, maar daar kon weereens nie 'n duidelike verwantskap tussen saadkwaliteit en Mo saadbehandeling waargeneem word nie. Dit blyk dat PEG voorafbehandeling die sade meer bestand teen die skadelike invloed van Mo gemaak het.

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