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The physiological responses of salinity stressed tomato plants to mycorrhizal infection and variation in rhizosphere carbon dioxide concentration

Lintnaar, Melissa (2000-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supplied to plant roots could improve plant growth and alleviate the effects of salinity stress on tomato plants infected with arbuscular mycorrhizae. Lycopersicon esculentum cv. FI44 seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture (pH 5.8) with 0 and 75 mM NaCI and with or without infection with the fungus Glomus mosseae. The root solution was aerated with ambient CO2 (360 ppm) or elevated CO2 ( 5 000 ppm) concentrations. The arbuscular and hypha I components of mycorrhizal infection as well as the percentages total infection were decreased or increased according to the variation in seasons. The plant dry weight of mycorrhizal plants was increased by 30% compared to non-mycorrhizal plants at elevated concentrations of CO2, while the dry weight was decreased by 68% at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elevated CO2 also stimulated the growth of the mycorrhizal fungus. Elevated CO2 increased the plant dry weight and stimulated fungal growth of mycorrhizal plants possibly by the provision of carbon due to the incorporation of HCO)- by PEPc. Plant roots supplied with elevated concentrations of CO2 had a decreased CO2 release rate compared to roots at ambient CO2. This decrease in CO2 release rate at elevated CO2 was due to the increased incorporation of HC03- by PEPc activity. Under conditions of salinity stress plants had a higher ratio of N03-: reduced N in the xylem sap compared to plants supplied with 0 mM NaCI. Under salinity stress conditions, more N03- was transported in the xylem stream possibly because of the production of more organic acids instead of amino acids due to low P conditions under which the plants were grown. The N03· uptake rate of plants increased at elevated concentrations of CO2 in the absence of salinity because the HCO)- could be used for the production of amino acids. In the presence of salinity, carbon was possibly used for the production of organic acids that diverted carbon away from the synthesis of amino acids. It was concluded that mycorrhizas were beneficial for plant growth under conditions of salinity stress provided that there was an additional source of carbon. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection did not improve the nutrient uptake of hydroponically grown plants.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie was die effek van verhoogde konsentrasies opgeloste anorganiese koolstof wat aan plant wortels verskaf is, getoets om te bepaal of dit die groei van plante kan verbeter asook of sout stres verlig kon word in tamatie plante wat met arbuskulêre mikorrhizas geïnfekteer was. Lycorpersicon esculentum cv. FJ44 saailinge was in water kultuur gegroei (pH 5.8) met 0 en 75 mM NaCI asook met of sonder infeksie met die fungus Glomus mosseae. Die plant wortels was bespuit met normale CO2 (360 dele per miljoen (dpm)) sowel as verhoogde CO2 (5 000 dpm) konsentrasies. Die arbuskulere en hife komponente, sowel as die persentasie infeksie was vermeerder of verminder na gelang van die verandering in seisoen. Die plant droë massa van mikorrhiza geïnfekteerde plante by verhoogde CO2 konsentrasies was verhoog met 30% in vergelyking met plante wat nie geïnfekteer was nie, terwyl die droë massa met 68% afgeneem het by gewone CO2 konsentrasies. Verhoogde CO2 konsentrasies het moontlik die plant droë massa en die groei van die fungus verbeter deur koolstof te verskaf as gevolg van die vaslegging van HCO)- deur die werking van PEP karboksilase. Plant wortels wat met verhoogde CO2 konsentrasies bespuit was, het 'n verlaagde CO2 vrystelling getoon in vergelyking met die wortels by normale CO2 vlakke. Die vermindering in CO2 vrystelling van wortels by verhoogde CO2 was die gevolg van die vaslegging van HC03- deur PEPk aktiwiteit. Onder toestande van sout stres, het plante 'n groter hoeveelheid N03- gereduseerde N in die xileemsap bevat in vergelyking met plante wat onder geen sout stres was nie, asook meer NO)- was in die xileemsap vervoer moontlik omdat meer organiese sure geproduseer was ten koste van amino sure. Dit was die moontlike gevolg omdat die plante onder lae P toestande gegroei het. Die tempo van NO.; opname was verhoog onder verhoogde CO2 konsentrasies en in die afwesigheid van sout stres omdat die HCO)- vir die produksie van amino sure gebruik was. In die teenwoordigheid van sout was koolstof moontlik gebruik om organiese sure te vervaardig wat koolstof weggeneem het van die vervaardiging van amino sure. Daar is tot die slotsom gekom dat mikorrhizas voordelig is vir die groei van plante onder toestande van sout stres mits daar 'n addisionele bron van koolstof teenwoordig is. Arbuskulere mikorrhiza infeksie het 'n geringe invloed gehad op die opname van voedingstowwe van plante wat in waterkultuur gegroei was.

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