The impact of Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) upon the witness and growth of the Korean Presbyterian Church

Kim, Nam Sik (2000-03)

Thesis (DTh)--Stellenbosch University, 2000

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many people are taking a keen interest in the growth of the Korean Church, and many research results are appearing. However, when dealing with the growth of Korean churches, account should be taken of the fact that this growth can only be fully understood and explained when studied against the historical background of the church's suffering in Korea. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the effect of the japanese colonial rule in Korea and in particular the impact caused by the introduction of a central element in japanese national religion, namely Shintoism. Resistance to the Shinto shrine ceremonies resulted in the church being persecuted in various ways, and this had an effect on the life as well as the growth of the Presbyterian Church in Korea. Chapter one of this dissertation compnses of the introduction, which deals with the research problem, purpose of the research, hypothesis, delimitations of the research, assumptions, definition of terms and proposed outline of the study. Chapter two provides a historical overview of the context of the Korean Presbyterian Church under japanese colonial rule (1910-1945), so as to gain an understanding of the historical background of the Korean Presbyterian Church. The history of the Korean Presbyterian Church up to 1945 can be divided into four different periods, according to certain significant events as phases in its life: the rise of the Church (1884-1907), the revival of the Church(1907-1912), growing confrontation (1912-1935), and persecution of the Church (1935-1945). These four periods are briefly described and analysed, paying particular attention to the Japanese period. Chapter three presents an analysis of the growth of the Presbyterian Church in Korea under Japanese colonial rule. This is done from a missiological perspective, in terms of the witness and growth of the church. The facts of church growth, the reasons for church growth and problems affecting church growth are discussed. The latter includes the problem of the influence of the traditional Shamanistic faith, the issue of the social involvement of the church and the problem of pro- Japanese attitudes in the church. Chapter four deals with the history and character of Shintoism and the Korean Christians' conflict with it. The first section discusses the types, standardization and liturgical structure of Shrine rites. The second part analyses the resistance of the Korean Presbyterian Church to the imposition of Shintoism which led, on the one hand, to a sharp division within the church, on the other hand, to conflict and subsequent persecution of those who chose to resist Shinto shrine obeisance. Chapter five deals with the witness of faith, on the part of those who resisted the shrine rites. This is done especially by presenting several studies of Korean Christian resistance leaders, and examines their ministry and views in order to determine reasons why they resisted Shintoism. The case studies represent both North and South Korea, as well as Manchuria. In conclusion, chapter SIX exammes the effects of Shinto persecution on the growth of Presbyterian Church in Korea, companng anti-Shinto with the pro-Shinto shrine groups. And the findings reveal that the Shinto shrine issue had certain specific long term effects on the Presbyterian Church in Korea, inter alia, in terms of growth patterns and membership trends.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: DIE IMPAK VAN DIE JAPANNESE KOLONIALE BEWIND OP DIE GETUIENIS EN GROEI VAN DIE KOREAANSE PRESBITERIAANSE KERK Daar heers vandag 'n wye en lewendige belangstelling in die groei van die Koreaanse kerk, met die gevolg dat baie navorsingsresultate nou die lig sien. Maar, wanneer die groei in die Koreaanse Kerke ondersoek word, moet rekening gehou word met die feit dat hierdie groei slegs volledig verstaan en gemterpreteer kan word teen die historiese agtergrond van die kerk se lyding in Korea. Die doel van hierdie verhandeling is om die effek van die Japannese koloniale bewind in Korea te ondersoek en, in besonder, die impak veroorsaak deur die invoer van 'n sentrale element in die Japannese nasionale geloof, naamlik Sjintoisrne. Die gevolg van verset teen die Sjinto - heiligdom seremonies was vervolging van die kerk op verskeie wyses, en dit het die lewe sowel as die groei van die Presbiteriaanse Kerk in Korea beinvloed. Hoofstuk 1 sluit in die inleiding wat handel oor die navorsingsprobleem, doel van hierdie navorsing, hipotese, afbakening van die navorsing, uitgangspunte, begripsomskrywing en voorgestelde inhoudsuitreensetting. Hoofstuk 2 bied 'n historiese oorsig oor die konteks van die Koreaanse Presbiteriaanse Kerk onder Japannese koloniale bewind (1910-1945), om sodoende 'n begrip van die historiese agtergrond van die Koreaanse Presbiteriaanse Kerk te bewerkstellig. Die geskiedenis van die Koreaanse Presbiteriaanse Kerk tot 1945 kan in vier verskillende periodes verdeel word volgens sekere betekenisvolle gebeure of stadiums in die lewe van die Kerk: die opkoms van die Kerk (1884-1907), die herlewing van die Kerk (1907-1912), groeiende konfrontasie (1912-1935) en vervolging van die Kerk (1935-1945). Hierdie vier peri odes word kortliks beskryf en ontleed, met besondere aandag aan die Japannese periode. Hoofstuk 3 bied 'n analise van die groei van die Presbiteriaanse Kerk in Korea onder Japannese koloniale bewind. Dit geskied vanuit 'n missiologiese perspektief met betrekking tot die getuienis en groei van die Kerk. Besonderhede oor kerkgroei, die redes hiervoor en probleme wat die groei beinvloed, word bespreek. Laasgenoemde sluit in die vraag na die invloed van die tradisionele Sjamanistiese geloof, die sosiale betrokkenheid van die Kerk en die probleem van pro-Japannese standpunte in die Kerk. Hoofstuk 4 handel oor die geskiedenis en karakter van Sjintoisme en die Koreaanse Christene se verset daarteen. Die eerste deel bespreek die tipes, standaardisering en liturgiese struktuur van die heiligdom rites. Die tweede deel ontleed die Koreaanse Presbiteriaanse Kerk se verset teen die afdwing van Sjintoisme wat, aan die een kant, lei tot 'n skerp verdeling binne die Kerk, en, aan die ander kant, tot konflik en die daaropvolgende vervolging van die mense wat gekies het om hul te verset teen eerbetoningsrites in Sjinto heiligdomme. Hoofstuk 5 behandel die geloofsgetuienis van die wat hul teen eerbetoningsrites verset het. Dit geskied veral deur verskeie gevallestudies van Koreaanse Christen versetleiers. Die bediening en die sienswyse van hierdie leiers word ondersoek om sodoende die redes vir hul verset teen Sjintoisme vas te stel. Die gevallestudies verteenwoordig sowel Noord- as Suid-Korea, asook Mantjoerye. Ten slotte ondersoek hoofstuk 6 die effek van Sjinto vervolging op die groei van die Presbiteriaanse Kerk in Korea, en vergelyk anti-Sjinto'istiese met die pro-Sjintoistiese groepe. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat die Sjinto heiligdom-geskilpunt sekere langtermyn gevolge vir die Presbiteriaanse Kerk in Korea gehad het, onder andere met betrekking tot groeipatrone en lidmaatskapstendense.

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