The adjective in Tshivenda

Mutheiwana, Humbulani Doris (2000-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study the adjective constructions in Tshiven~a are investigated within a set of criteria in order to characterize the adjectival category and to differentiate it from other categories. An adjective can be defined as a word which modifies a noun that prototypically denotes visible or tangible objects. Different linguists give different accounts which deal with criteria for adjectives where they give attention to prototype and certain multiple criteria. Dixon establishes seven different semantic types under which the adjectives can be grouped, e.g. one of them is dimension. It has been established by Schachter that there are languages that have no adjectives at all, in which the meanings that they express are conveyed by nouns or verbs. In other words what is universal is not adjectives but to modify, or elaborate on the meaning of a noun. Morphological adjectives are marked by a noun class prefix on the adjectival stem. The prefix agrees in class with the noun to which it refers. Morphological adjective can appear attributively and predicatively. When adjectives are used attributively in Tshivenda they usually appear as " complements of a noun. But when they are used predicatively, they occur in copulative constructions. Syntactic evidence relates to the fact that different categories of words have different distributions. Adjective can not be identified by looking at it in isolation, because the form of a word does not necessarily indicate its syntactic function. Descriptive possessives as semantic adjectives describe the noun they refer to in a way that is different to that of possessives. The descriptive part can be shown as the head of the noun and can also be shown as a complement of possessive [-a-] where they indicate location, time, event and gender.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie word die adjektief konstruksie in Tshivenda ondersoek binne die raamwerk van 'n stel kriteria met die doelom 'n karakterisering te gee van die adjektief kategorie en om dit te onderskei van ander kategorieë. 'n Adjektief kan gedefinieer word as 'n woord wat 'n naamwoord bepaal wat prototipies verwys na konkrete voorwerpe. Linguiste gee verskillende aannames wat handeloor kriteria vir adjektiewe waarin hulle aandag gee aan prototipe en sekere meervoudige kriteria. Dixon het sewe verskillende semantiese tipes bepaal waaronder adjektiewe gegroepeer kan word bv. een daarvan is dimensie. Daar is vasgestel deur Schachter dat daar tale is wat geen adjektiewe het nie waarin die betekenisse wat hulle uitdruk gedra word deur naamwoorde of werkwoorde. Wat dus universeel is, is nie adjektiewe nie maar om die betekenis van 'n woord te modifieer. Morfologiese adjektiewe is gemerk deur 'n naamwoord klasprefiks op die adjektiefstam. Die prefiks kom ooreen in klas met die naamwoord waarna dit verwys. Morfologiese adjektiewe kan attributief en predikatief voorkom. Wanneer adjektiewe attributief gebruik word, verskyn hulle as komplement van die naamwoord. Maar wanneer hulle predikatief gebruik word kom hulle voor in kopulatief konstruksies. In sintaksis kan verskillende kategorieë van woorde verskillende distribusies hê. Adjektiewe kan nie geïdentifiseer word deur na dit te kyk in isolasie want die vorm van In woord dui nie noodwendig sy sintaktiese funksie aan. Deskriptiewe possessiewe as semantiese adjektiewe beskryf die naamwoord waarna hulle verwys op 'n wyse wat verskillend is van dié van possessiewe. Die deskriptiewe deel kan aangetoon word as die kern van die naamwoord groep en kan ook aangetoon word as In komplement van die possessiewe [-a-] waar hulle plek, tyd, gebeurtenis en geslag aandui.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/51935
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