Statutere regulering van surrogaatmoederskap : 'n kritiese ontleding van relevante oorwegings

Els, Ronel (2000-12)

Thesis (LLM)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of regulating surrogacy in the light of the existing legal position and the relevant moral aspects. It is now medically possible for one woman to bear a child, which is not genetically related to her, on behalf of another person. Currently the law makes no specific provision for the regulation of surrogate motherhood. The key problem in this regard is that the existing law is applicable to surrogate motherhood, inter alia because surrogacy is brought about by artificial insemination and because the intended parents can only acquire parental authority by way of adoption. The final recommendation is a Surrogacy Act for South Africa. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is an analysis of the relevant moral and social aspects relating to surrogacy in order to justify the above-mentioned act morally. Commercial surrogacy, the genetic tie between parent and child, the differences between surrogacy and adoption, the question as to who is a parent and surrogacy for convenience are analysed. Despite all the arguments that can be made in favour of or against these moral issues in a vacuum, these arguments will be irrelevant in cases where the child is already born. In such a case the only relevant concern will be what is in the child's best interest. In the second part of the thesis the existing legal position is analysed. This includes an examination of the applicable legislation, the impact of the Constitution, the South African Law Commission's proposed bill on surrogate motherhood and the customary law. Although the relevant legislation does not specifically provide for surrogacy, it remains applicable. This is extremely problematic for the parties involved. The Bill of Rights is applicable to all law and binds the Legislature. Therefore the main principles of the Constitution will have to be embodied in the proposed regulatory Act. Although the Law Commission's proposed bill is a well formulated document, one shortcoming that has been identified is that it is not constitutionally justifiable. The customary law has several practices which are analogous to surrogacy. The right to culture, which is entrenched in the Constitution, has the effect that these practices cannot be outlawed. However, should it not be consistent with the Constitution, it can be held to be invalid. The conclusion which is reached is that surrogacy can be morally and constitutionally justifiable if it is regulated properly. It is therefore proposed that an Act be formulated to regulate these relevant issues. Such a proposed Act is included in part three of the thesis.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis ondersoek die moontlikheid om surrogaatmoederskap te reguleer as gevolg van die feit dat dit nou vir 'n vrou moontlik is om 'n kind, wat nie geneties aan haar verwant is nie, vir 'n ander te baar. Die reg maak nie spesifiek vir die regulering van surrogaatmoederskap voorsiening nie. Die kernprobleem in hierdie verband is dat die bestaande reg wel van toepassing daarop is, vanweë onder andere die feit dat surrogaatmoederskap teweeggebring word deur middel van kunsmatige bevrugting. Wetgewing wat kunsmatige bevrugting reguleer is gevolglik van toepassing, hoewel dit nie geskryf was met die oog op surrogaatmoederskap in die besonder nie. Die doel van die studie is gevolglik om te ondersoek hoe surrogaatmoederskap gereguleer kan word gegewe die bestaande regsposisie en relevante morele oorwegings. Die tesis kan in drie afdelings verdeel word. Die eerste bestaan uit 'n analise van die morele aspekte wat by surrogaatmoederskap ter sprake is. Dit is nodig om hierdie aangeleenthede te analiseer ten einde 'n voorgestelde wet moreel regverdigbaar te maak. Kommersiële surrogaatmoederskap, die genetiese band tussen ouer en kind, die verskille tussen surrogasie en aanneming, die vraag na die identiteit van die ouer en surrogaatmoederskap vir gerief word geanaliseer. Ten spyte van al die morele argumente wat gemaak kan word voordat 'n kind gebore is, is hierdie argumente van weinig belang waar die kind reeds gebore is. In so 'n geval is dit slegs die beste belang van die kind wat oorweeg moet word. Die bestaande regsposisie word in die tweede deel van die tesis ontleed. Dit sluit 'n ontleding van die relevante wetgewing, die oorweging van die impak van die Grondwet, 'n analise van die Suid-Afrikaanse Regskommissie se Voorgestelde Wetsontwerp op Surrogaatmoederskap en 'n evaluering van die inheemse reg in. Die gevolgtrekking wat gemaak word is dat die bestaande wetgewing nie uitdruklik vir surrogaatmoederskap voorsiening maak nie, maar wel daarop van toepassing kan wees. Dit veroorsaak verskeie probleme vir die betrokke partye. Die Grondwet het 'n drastiese impak op die regulering van surrogaatmoederskap en sal in ag geneem moet word indien 'n surrogaatmoederskapswet voorgestel word. Die Regskommissie se voorgestelde wetsontwerp is 'n goed geformuleerde dokument, maar moet aangepas word ten einde grondwetlik regverdigbaar te wees. Daar is verskeie gebruike in die inheemse reg wat analoog aan surrogaatmoederskap is. Die reg op kultuur, wat grondwetlik verskans is, het tot gevolg dat partye, op wie die inheemse reg van toepassing is, die reg het om hierdie gebruike na te volg. Indien die praktyke egter strydig met die Grondwet is, kan dit ongeldig verklaar word. Derdens word 'n wet voorgestelom surrogaatmoederskap te reguleer. Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat surrogaatmoederskap moreel en grondwetlik regverdigbaar kan wees indien dit behoorlik gereguleer word.

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