Regulated expression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malic enzyme gene

Van der Merwe, Marizeth (2000-03)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is able to effectively degrade extracellular L-malate by means of a permease for the active transport of L-malate and a malic enzyme that catalyses the intracellular oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to pyruvate and CO2. Sequence analysis of the S. pombe NAD-dependent malic enzyme gene, mae2, revealed an open reading frame of 1695 nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 565 amino acids. Mutational analyses of the mae2 promoter region revealed several putative cis-acting elements. Two of these elements have homology with binding sites for eukaryotic cAMPdependent regulatory proteins. The UAS I showed homology with the invert of the ADRI binding site, an AP-2 binding site and the TGGCA element. The other putative cAMPdependent site, UAS2, showed homology with the binding site for ATF/CREB and proved to be a strong activator sequence that is required for expression of the mae2 gene. Three negative acting elements, DRS I, DRS2 and DRS3 seem to function co-operatively to repress transcription of the mae2 gene. In this study northern and western blot analyses, as well as malic enzyme assays, showed increased levels of mae2 transcription and enzyme activity when cells were grown under fermentative conditions. The levels of mae2 expression increased approximately 4-fold in 30% glucose and 3-fold under anaerobic conditions. These increased levels of malic enzyme may provide additional pyruvate for various metabolic processes when the mitochondria are not fully functional under fermentative conditions. The regulated expression of the mae2 gene was further investigated using mae2-1acZ fusion plasmids that carried mutations in the DASI, UAS2 or the triple mutated DRSI/URS2/URS3 elements. These plasmids were transformed into S. pombe strains with mutations in the cAMP-dependent or stress-activated signal transduction pathways to determine the signal for the increased expression of the mae2 gene. The cAMP-dependent (Pkal ) and general stress activated (Styl) pathways often act in parallel to regulate the activation of transcription factors necessary for the expression of several S. pombe genes under different physiological conditions. The results presented here suggest that regulatory proteins involved in the Pka l and Styl pathways play a role in the regulation of the mae2 gene under fermentative conditions. Furthermore, some of the regulatory cis-acting elements in the mae2 promoter may interact with these trans-acting factors to regulate the transcription of the gene under different growth conditions. The mechanism of this interaction is not yet known and further research is required to identify all the transcription factors involved in the regulation of the mae2 gene.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die splitsingsgis S. pombe is in staat om ekstrasellulêre L-malaat effektief af te breek danksy 'n permease vir die aktiewe opname van L-malaat en 'n malaatensiem wat die intrasellulêre oksidatiewe dekarboksilering van L-malaat na pirovaat en C02 kataliseer. DNA-geen opeenvolgings van die NAD-afhanklike malaatensiemgeen, mae2, het 'n oopleesraam van 1695 nukleotiede getoon wat vir 'n polipeptied van 565 aminosure kodeer. Mutasie-analise van die mae2-promoter gebied het verskeie moontlike cis-werkende elemente getoon. Twee van die elemente toon homologie met bindingsetels vir eukariotiese cAMP-afhanklike regulatoriese proteïene. Die DAS 1 toon homologie met die omgekeerde volgorde van die ADRI bindingsetel, 'n AP-2 bindingsetel en 'n TGGCA element. Die ander moonlike cAMP afhanklike setel, DAS2, toon homologie met die bindingsetel vir ATF/CREB en is 'n sterk aktiveringselement wat vir die uitdrukking van die mae2-geen benodig word. Drie onderdrukker-tipe elemente, DRSI, DRS2 en DRS3, funksioneer moontlik gesamentlik om die transkripsie van die mae2-geen te onderdruk. In hierdie studie het northern en western klad analise, sowel as malaatensiem aktiwiteitstoetse verhoogde vlakke van mae2-transkripsie en ensiemaktiwiteit getoon wanneer die kulture onder fermentatiewe toestande gegroei het. Die uitdrukking van die mae2-geen het ongeveer 4-voudig toegeneem in 30% glukose en 3-voudig onder anaërobiese toestande. Hierdie verhoogde uitdrukking van die malaatensiem mag addisionele pirovaat vir verskeie metaboliese behoeftes voorsien wanneer die mitochondria onder fermentatiewe toestande nie volkome funksioneer nie. Die uitdrukking van die mae2-geen is verder onder fermentatiewe toestande bestudeer deur gebruik te maak van mae2-lacZ-fusie plasmiede wat mutasies in die moontlike DASI, DAS2, of die drievoudig-gemuteerde DRS I/URS2/URS3 setels bevat. Hierdie plasmiede is in S. pombe rasse met mutasies in die cAMP-afhanklike of stres-geaktiveerde seintransduksie paaie getransformeer om die sein vir die verhoogde mae2-geen uitdrukking te bepaal. Die cAMP-afhanklike (Pkal) en algemene stres-aktiverings (Styl) pad werk soms in parallel om die aktivering van transkripsiefaktore betrokke in die uitdrukking van verskeie S. pombe gene onder verskillende fisiologiese toestande to bewerkstellig. Ons resultate dui daarop dat die regulatoriese proteïene van die Pkal en die Styl paaie 'n rol in die regulering van die mae2- geen onder fermentatiewe toestande speel. Daar is ook aanduidings dat sommige van die regulatoriese cis-werkende elemente in die mae2-promoter wisselwerking met die transwerkende faktore toon om die transkripsie van die geen onder verskillende groeitoestande te reguleer. Die meganisme van hierdie interaksie is nog nie bekend nie en verdere navorsing is nodig om al die transkripsiefaktore wat by die regulering van die mae2-geen betrokke is, te identifiseer.

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