'n Vergelyking tussen die prestasiemotiveringsvlakke van verskillende rasse- en geslagsgroepe

Braxton, William Thomas Frederick (2000-03)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievement motivation levels of male and female subjects, and those of white and black subjects. Gender and race are, according to research, two key factors in determining the achievement motivation level of people. These two factors will also, as the result of legislation, play an increasingly significant role in the future in determining the career progress of employees in South African organisations. The secondary aim of the present study was firstly to determine what effect gender, race, age and education had on the achievement motivation level of subjects. Secondly, the present study focussed on the relationship between achievement motivation, work performance and salary progression. A stratified sample of 240 subjects was selected from the clerical staff employed by an Insurance company. The sample reflected the composition of the company in respect of gender and race. The Indian, coloured and black subjects were grouped together under the classification of "black subjects". The 89 subjects utilised in the research around the relationship between achievement motivation, work performance and salary progression, were a part of the total sample of 240 subjects. The 89 subjects were not selected in a specific manner. They were, however, employees for whom salary information and supervisor assessment of work performance were available. The Work Preference Questionnaire was used to assess the achievement motivation of subjects. Work performance of subjects was assessed by supervisors on a four point scale. Salary progression was calculated by expressing subjects' 1994 salary as a percentage of their 1992 salary. Information in respect of educational level and age was provided by subjects themselves. Correlation coefficients between the variables were calculated to determine the existence and direction of any relationships between the variables. Multiple regression analysis was then used. The significance of the difference between the averages of white and black subjects in respect of achievement motivation scores was calculated. The most important findings can be summarised as follows: A significant difference was found between the achievement motivation scores of white (X = 10,95) and black subjects (X = 9,6), t(238) = 3,5736, p<O,OOl. The difference between the achievement motivation scores of men and women was not significant. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the effect of race on achievement motivation was significant after the effect of age, education level and gender was eliminated, F(I,235) = 4,425, P < 0,05. Multiple regression analyses in respect of the effect of gender, age and educational qualifications on achievement motivation, indicated that the effect of each of these variables on achievement motivation was not significant after the effect of the other variables was eliminated. A significant relationship was found to exist between achievement motivation and salary progression, r(89) = 0,21, P < 0,05. Decisionmakers and policymakers involved with affirmative action in the company where the research was undertaken, should take note of a finding of the study which suggests that the beneficiaries of affirmative action (blacks, coloureds and Indians) do not have the same level of achievement motivation as the people they have to replace. If one accepts that achievement motivation contributes significantly to the economical growth of society and that economic prosperity could play an important role in determining the success of affirmative action, it is obvious and essential that the development of the achievement motivation of these people should receive attention. Another finding which decisionmakers in business enterprise should take note of, is that women in the present study do not have a lower level of achievement motivation than men. The reasons for the slow progress of women in the business world, when compared to men, should probably rather be ascribed to factors outside the control of women. These factors will include company policy, company politics and management practices resulting from perspectives based on stereotypes of women. The results of the research suggested that management rewards employees financially in accordance with their levels of achievement motivation. This practice could be seen as a calculated attempt on the side of management to maintain the services of employees who contribute constructively to company results. At the same time, this practice serves as an incentive to employees who do not contribute to the same extent to company results, to try to do so.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die hoofdoelstelling met hierdie ondersoek was om te bepaal of daar 'n beduidende verskil tussen die prestasiemotiveringsvlakke van manlike en vroulike subjekte, en tussen dié van blanke en swart subjekte was. Geslag en ras wat volgens navorsing twee sleutelfaktore is in die bepaling van die prestasiemotiveringvlak van persone gaan, as gevolg van wetgewing, in die toekoms 'n toenemende belangrike rol in die beroepsvordering van persone in Suid- Afrikaanse organisasies speel. Die newedoelstellings met die ondersoek was eerstens om te bepaal wat die effek van geslag, ras, ouderdom en opvoedkundige vlak op die prestasiemotiveringsvlak van subjekte was. Tweedens het die ondersoek ook gefokus op die onderlinge verband tussen prestasiemotivering, werksprestasie en salarisprogressie . 'n Gestratifiseerde steekproef van 240 subjekte is uit die klerklike personeel van 'n lewensversekeringsmaatskappy geselekteer. Die steekproef is so saamgestel dat dit die komposisie van die maatskappy in terme van geslag en ras weerspieël het. Die Indiër, bruin en swart subjekte is saamgegroepeer onder die klassifikasie van "swart subjekte". Die 89 subjekte wat betrek is by die navorsing rondom die onderlinge verband tussen prestasiemotivering, werksprestasie en salarisprogressie, was 'n deel van die totale steekproef van 240 subjekte. Die 89 subjekte is nie op 'n spesifieke wyse uit die steekproef geselekteer me. Hulle was egter werknemers vir wie inligting ten opsigte van salarisprogressie en toesighouerbeoordeling beskikbaar was. Die Werkvoorkeurvraelys is gebruik om 'n meting van die prestasiemotiveringsvlak van elke subjek te verkry. Werksprestasie van subjekte is deur toesighouers op 'n vierpuntskaal beoordeel. Subjekte se 1994-salaris is uitgedruk as 'n persentasie van hul 1992-salaris om 'n aanduiding van salarisprogressie te verskaf. Inligting ten opsigte van opvoedkundige vlak en ouderdom is deur subjekte self verstrek. Korrelasiekoëffisiënte tussen die onderskeie veranderlikes is eers bereken sodat enige moontlike verwantskappe tussen die veranderlikes en die rigting daarvan bepaal kon word. Meervoudige regressieanalise is daarna uitgevoer. Beduidendheid van verskille tussen die rekenkundige gemiddeldes van swart en blanke subjekte ten opsigte van prestasiemotiveringstellings is bepaal. Die belangrikste bevindinge kan soos volg opgesom word: Daar is 'n beduidende verskil gevind tussen die prestasiemotiveringstellings van blanke (X = 10,95) en swart subjekte (X = 9,6), t (238) = 3,5736, P < 0,001. Die verskil tussen die prestasiemotiveringstelling van mans en vroue was nie beduidend nie. Meervoudige regressieontleding het getoon dat die effek van ras op prestasiemotivering beduidend was, nadat die effek van ouderdom, opvoedkundige vlak en geslag verwyder is, F(I,235) = 4,425, P < 0,05. Meervoudige regressieontledings ten opsigte van die effek van geslag, ouderdom en opvoedkundige kwalifikasies op prestasiemotivering, het daarop gedui dat die effek van elk van hierdie veranderlikes op prestasiemotivering nadat die effek van die ander veranderlikes verwyder is, nie beduidend was nie. Daar is 'n beduidende verband gevind tussen prestasiemotivering en salarisprogressie, r(89) = 0,21, P < 0,05. 'n Belangrike bevinding van die ondersoek waarvan besluitnemers en beleidmakers wat betrokke is by regstellende aksie binne die organisasie waar die navorsing onderneem is, behoort kennis te neem, is dat die persone (swartmense, bruinmense en Indiërs) wat die begunstigdes van hierdie aksies is, nie oor dieselfde vlak van prestasiemotivering beskik as die persone (blankes) wat hulle moet vervang nie. Indien aanvaar word dat prestasiemotivering 'n beduidende bydrae lewer tot die ekonomiese welvaart van gemeenskappe, en dat ekonomiese welvaart 'n belangrike rol kan speel in die bepaling van die sukses van regstellende aksie, is dit vanselfsprekend en noodsaaklik dat die ontwikkeling van prestasiemotivering by hierdie persone aandag moet geniet. Nog'n bevinding waarvan besluitnemers in sakeondernemings spesifiek moet kennis neem, is dat vroue in hierdie ondersoek nie oor 'n laer prestasiemotiveringsvlak as mans beskik nie. Dieredes vir die stadige vordering van vroue in vergelyking met mans in die sakewêreld, moet waarskynlik eerder toegeskryf word aan faktore buite beheer van vroue, soos byvoorbeeld maatskappybeleid, maatskappypolitiek en bestuurspraktyke gebaseer op stereotipe aannames oor vroue. Die resultate van die ondersoek het ook getoon dat werknemers finansieel beloon word na gelang van hul vlak van prestasiemotivering. Hierdie benadering is waarskynlik 'n berekende poging deur bestuur om deur middel van die verlening van erkenning, werknemers wat 'n positiewe bydrae tot maatskappy resultate lewer, te behou. Terselfdertyd dien dié praktyk ook as 'n aansporing vir werknemers wat nie dieselfde mate van positiewe bydrae tot die maatskappy lewer nie, om dit wel te probeer doen.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/51856
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