Mix design considerations for cold and half-warm bituminous mixes with emphasis of foamed bitumen

Jenkins, Kim Jonathan (2000-12)

Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The use of foamed bitumen and bitumen emulsion as binders for use in road rehabilitation is gaining favour globally. High-level road facilities through to unpaved roads requiring attention are being treated with these binders due to environmental, economic and practical benefits in the use of cold bituminous mixes. In addition, static and mobile plant with the capability of performing stabilisation using bitumenemulsion and foamed bitumen has become commercially available and widely utilised, as a result of development in recycling technology and lapse in patent rights on foam nozzles. An understanding of the behaviour and failure mechanisms of these cold mixes, as well as sound guidelines for the mix design procedures of cold mixes, especially foamed bitumen, and design guidelines for pavements structures incorporating these materials, are lacking however. Mix designs are carried out primarily on the basis of experience and pavement designs are empirically based. The main objective of this dissertation is to address the need for a fundamental understanding of foamed bitumen and foamed bitumen mixes, and in so doing to develop techniques for adjudicating mixes, optimising their composition and rationalising their design both as mixes and as layers in road pavements. At the same time the exploration of new applications for foamed bitumen and the possibilities for progressive related technology, is a priority. To commence, this study includes an appraisal of most of the literature available on foamed bitumen. This is followed by a fundamental investigation of the colloidal mass of foam that is produced when small quantities of cold water are added to hot bitumen. Factors influencing the quality of the foam are identified and a Foam Index is developed for characterisation and optimisation of the foam. The spatial composition of a cold foamed bitumen mix, including Interaction of the foam with moist mineral aggregate, is also addressed in this dissertation. In particular, the stiffening of the filler mastic using foamed bitumen as binder is analysed. Techniques of optimising the sand type and content in the mix are also developed and guidelines for desired aggregate structures for foam treatment are established. The temperature of the mineral aggregate has been shown to have a profound influence on the behaviour and performance of a foamed bitumen mix. This has been selected as a focal area of further investigation and the research has lead to the development of a new process called "The half-warm foamed bitumen treatment process" that can produce mixes with almost the quality of hot mix asphalt with up to 40% less energy consumption. Other processes developed in this research include the use of cold mix asphaltic blocks for construction of road pavements in developing areas. This technology enhances the use of a high labour component in road construction in an economically competitive manner. The dissertation provides details for mix design and construction of the cold mix blocks. Finally, the study includes models for the performance prediction of foamed bitumen mixes. In particular, foamed mixes that exhibit stress-dependent behaviour have been investigated and models established on the basis of triaxial testing and accelerated pavement testing for the prediction of permanent deformation of such layers under repeated loading. Practical applications of the research findings are summarised in Appendix F. This includes: • methods for optimisation of the foamed bitumen properties, • guidelines for the selection of the ideal aggregate structure for cold foamed mixes, • procedures for carrying out cold mix design in the laboratory (including mixing, compaction and curing), • procedures for manufacturing half-warm foamed mixes in the laboratory, • methods for manufacturing cold mix blocks, and • pavement design methods for road structures incorporating foamed mix layers. Appendix G outlines statistical techniques that are relevant to the design of experiments in pavement engineering including examples of applications of these procedures. The techniques are applied selectively in the relevant chapters of the dissertation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van skuim bitumen en bitumen emulsie as bindmidel in pad rehabilitasie begin groter voorkeur wêreldwyd geniet. Van hoë vlak padfasiliteite tot ongeplaveide paaie wat aandag benodig, word met hierdie binders behandel vanweë die omgewings-, ekonomiese en praktiese voordele wat hierdie koue bitumen mengsels inhou. Voorts is statiese en mobiele masjinerie wat die vermoë het om stabilisasie in die gebruik van bitumenemulsie en skuimbitumen te bewerkstellig, in die handel verkrygbaar. Dit word algemeen gebruik as 'n uitvloeisel van ontwikkelings in herwinningstegnologie en die verslapping van patenteregte op skuim sproeikoppe. 'n Leemte bestaan in die begrip van die gedrags- en swigtingsmeganismes van hierdie koue mengsels, asook goeie riglyne vir die mengselontwerp van koue mengsels en in besonder skuimbitumen, en ontwerpriglyne vir plaveisel strukture waar hierdie materiaal geinkorporeer is. Mengselontwerpe word hoofsaaklik uitgevoer op grond van ondervinding, terwyl plaveiselontwerpe empiries gebaseer is. Die hoofdoel van die verhandeling is om die behoefte vir 'n fundamentele begrip van skuim bitumen en skuimbitumen mengsels aan te spreek, en daardeur tegnieke te ontwikkel vir die be-oordeling van mengsels, optimsering van hul samestelling en rasionalisering van hulontwerp vir beide mengsels en plaveisellae. Terselfdertyd is die ondersoek na nuwe toepassings van skuim bitumen en die moontlikhede van nuwe tegnologie 'n prioriteit. As beginpunt sluit hierdie studie 'n waardeskatting van die meeste literatuur beskikbaar op skuim bitumen in. Dit word gevolg deur 'n basiese ondersoek na die kolloidale massa van skuim wat geproduseer word wanneer klein hoeveelhede koue water by warm bitumen gevoeg word. Faktore wat die gehalte van die skuim beinvloed word uitgewys en 'n Skuim Indeks is ontwikkel vir die karakterisering en optimisering van die skuim. Die ruimtelike samestelling van 'n koue bitumen mengsel, wat die interaksie van die skuim met vogtige minerale samevoegings (aggregate) insluit, word ook aangespreek. Besondere aandag word gewy aan die verharding van die vuiler mastiekgom wat gebruik word as bitumen binder. Tegnieke om die sandtipe en inhoud van die mengsel te optimiseer is ontwikkel en riglyne vir die verlangde samevoegingstrukture (aggregate strukture) vir skuimbehandeling is opgestel. Daar is bevind dat die temperatuur van die minerale aggregaat 'n duidelike invloed op die gedrag en verrigting van 'n skuimbitumen mengsel het. Dit is gekies as In fokuspunt vir verdere studie en die navorsingswerk daarop het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van In nuwe proses wat "Die half-warm skuim bitumen behandelings proses" genoem word. Hierdie proses produseer mengsels wat byna gelykstaande is aan die gehalte van warm gemengde asfalt, maar met tot 40% minder energie verbruik. Ander prosesse wat met dié navorsing ontwikkel is, sluit koue gemengde asfaltiese blokke in, wat gebruik word in die konstruksie van padplaveisel in ontwikkelende gebiede. Hierdie tegnologie bevorder die ekonomiese gebruik van 'n hoë arbeidskomponent in padkonstruksie. Die studie stel besonderhede vir die mengselontwerp en konstruksie vir koue gemengde blokke voor. Laastens sluit die studie modelle in vir die werkverrigtingsvoorspelling van skuimbitumen mengsels. Op basis van drie-assige proewe in die laboratorium en versnelde belasting van paaie is modelle ontwikkel vir skuim bitumen mengsels wat spanningsafhanklike gedrag vertoon (die sogenaamde "granulêre" groep) om die permanente deformasie in die lae as gevolg van herhaalde verkeersbelasting te voorspel. 'n Opsomming van al die praktiese toepassings van die ontwikkelings van die navorsing word in Appendix F verskaf. Dit sluit in: • optimesering van die eienskappe van skuimbitumen, • riglyne vir gewenste samestelling van aggregaat in skuimbitumen mengsels, • ontwerp metodes vir koue skuimbitumen mengsels in die laboratorium (meng, verdigting en curing), • produksie metodes vir half-warme mensels in die laboratorium, • produksie metodes vir blokke wat met koue mengsels gemaak word, en • plaveiselontwerp metodes van strukture wat skuimbitumen lae inkorporeer. Appendix G gee 'n oorsig van statistiese tegnieke wat relevant is vir die ontwerp van eksperimente, insluitend voorbeelde van toepassings van die prosedures in plaveiselingenieurswese. Die tegnieke word selektief toegepas in die relevante hoofstukke van die verhandeling.

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