Metropolitan management and planning in South Africa

Koopman, Claudia (2000-03)

Thesis (MS en S)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The importance of and the need for metropolitan planning and government structures in the development of cities have become evident over the last century. Internationally, the approach to metro governance has evolved from informal metro management structures into, for example the more formalised two-tier or single tier systems of London and Toronto. The recent changes in these systems indicate that there is not one system that is universally accepted as the best. South Africa has not escaped the metropolitan development process and the resulting problems that went hand in hand with this. The first form of metropolitan planning in South Africa occurred in 1940, with the inception of the Joint Planning Committees. Later, in 1986 the institution of Regional Services Councils served as the first form of metropolitan governance. In 1995 the first democratic Local Government elections hailed the entry into democratic metropolitan government structures. With the proclamation of six new metropolitan areas South African metropolitan governments adopted the two-tier metropolitan system. Since 1995 South African local government structures have undergone major transformations. Proponents of the current two-tier system failed to anticipate the pressures of Central Government for change to the one tier, megacity or unicity model. Critics of the government's plans argued strongly for the retention of the current two-tier model and for minimal organisational change. The disruption that yet another transformation will cause, is one of the main objections. In the Cape Town and Durban Metropolitan Areas the consensus seems to be that the present two-tier system is working well and that it should be retained. In the case of Johannesburg Metropolitan Area many problems were encountered, especially the inability to redistribute local government income. The consensus there is that a unicity model will work better. Whether the unicity model is the answer to urban sustainability for all metropolitan areas of South Africa, is still a disputed fact.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die belangrikheid van en die behoefte aan metropolitaanse beplannings- en regeringstrukture in die ontwikkeling van stede het oor die afgelope eeu baie ooglopend geword. Die benaderings tot metropolitaanse bestuur in internasionale kringe het beweeg van die meer informele metropolitaanse bestuurstrukture na die meer formele een- of tweevlak stelsels van byvoorbeeld Londen Of Toronto. Die onlangse veranderinge in hierdie stelsels is 'n bewys dat daar nie een stelsel beataan wat universeel as die beste aanvaar word nie. Suid Afrika het nie die proses van metropolitaanse ontwikkeling en die gepaardgaande probleme daarvan vrygespring nie. Die eerste vorm van metropolitaanse beplanning in Suid Afrika was die instelling van die Gesamentlike Beplanningskomitees in 1940. Later in 1986 met die totstandkoming van streekdiensterade was daar vir die eerste keer sprake van 'n vorm van metropolitaanse regering. Met die eerste demokratiese verkiesing van plaaslike regeringsisteme in 1995 is ses tweevlak metropolitaanse egerings in suid Afrika ingestel. Sedert 1995 het plaaslike owerhede in Suid Afrika grootskaalse veranderinge ondergaan. Voorstanders van die huidige tweevlak stelsel het nie daarin geslaag om die druk van Nasionale Regering om te verander na 'n eenvlak, unistad of megastad sisteem, af te weer nie. Kritici van die regering se planne het hewige argumente aangebied vir die behoud van die huidige sisteem asook vir minimale organisatoriese veranderinge. Die hoof beswaar was die grootskaalse ontwrigting wat nog 'n transformasie proses sou meebring. In die Kaapse en Durbanse Metropolitaanse Gebiede is daar konsensus oor die werkbaarheid van die tweevlak stelsel en ook dat dit behoue moet bly. Johannesburg Metropolitaanse Area daarenteen het etlike probleme ondervind, veral met die verdeling van munisipale inkomste. Daar is konsensus dat' n unistad model waarskynlik beter sal werk. Of die unistad model die antwoord is op stedelike volhoubaarheid in alle metropolitaanse gebiede in Suid Afrika, is steeds 'n debatteerbare punt.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/51827
This item appears in the following collections: