Kritiese elemente in die opleiding van onderwysers ten opsigte van opvoeding vir vrede

Johannes, Delphine (2000-12)

Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South African society is currently undergoing a process of reconstruction and development, in social, economic and various other areas. South Africa struggles with problems such as unemployment and crime, which is also the case in many other countries. Socio-political and cultural factors, for example, poverty, unemployment, hunger and a shortage of housing, lends itself favourably towards criminal activities. These individual problems are regarded as reasons for the escalating crime in the country. The statistics pertaining to violence reflect that the level of acceptance of crime is embedded in the South African culture. As a result of the high crime figures, only the minority of the South African population have peace of mind. This situation influences the learners of the country because the school is directly connected to their society. Without peace, South Africa will be unable to prosper on any level and therefore it is essential that the present generation of learners be taught to resolve conflict in a peaceful manner. The statistics in respect of crime indicates that learners are influenced negatively and because of the democratic values of the country the various aspects of the rights of children do not carry any weight. The process of democracy has led to a total transformation at the educational level. A teaching system has evolved whereby teaching is more developmental, thereby stimulating people physically, emotionally, critically, aestheticaely and mentally. Outcomes Based Education is therefore regarded as a valuable shift in the direction for a better educational system. This education system strives to breach the social and historical inequalities. Aspects such as freedom, equality and peace which connect strongly to the process of Continuous Learning is emphasised in the White Paper of Education and Training (1995). The new education system requires that crime in schools be resisted and that education be utilised as an instrument for the promotion of peace in the country. The teaching of values and skills to handle conflict, conflict resolution, mediation, tolerance and co-operation can promote stability and peace within schools. These critical elements form part of Education for Peace. According to the literature, Education for Peace is seen both nationally and internationally as a possible solution to crime. Outcomes Based Education has made a tremendous impact on schools and educators. The National Qualification Framework requires of the educator to be a facilitator, which changes the task and nature of the teacher. The teacher must realise that change is an ongoing process and that the process of empowerment is necessary. Empowerment in Outcomes Based Education system and also in respect of Education for Peace demands a prominent role from the teacher as curriculum agent and developer. The development of an effective curriculum is rather difficult and demands dynamic teachers that can positively handle these changes. The teacher is regarded as the stimulant of behavioural changes within the learner. Teachers are therefore responsible to empower learners within the school context to think critically about social problems, conflict and crime. In this study acknowledgement is given to the importance of participation of the teachers in decision making. The opinions of teachers with regard to Education for Peace are obtained by an empirical investigation through interviews and questionnaires. Responding teachers have indicated that there is a vacuum in respect of Education for Peace. In this study teachers have: taken cognisance of Education for Peace and highlighted its critical elements; declared that Education for Peace (and the critical elements within) be applied as a mechanism to combat crime; determined that Education for Peace is essential within Outcomes Based Education and that specific skills be carried over to learners and that certain critical outcomes be reached. In response teachers have indicated that South Africa is not a peaceful country and that each teacher and learner make a personal contribution to the attainment of peace in schools, as well as in the community. Through Education for Peace learners can realise that they have an important role to playas peace makers in South Africa. This research has led to the compilation of a theoretical curriculum framework which has specific critical elements of Education for Peace as its foundation. The curriculum framework can be changed or adapted according to the needs of the learner and the community.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika is tans op ekonomiese, sosiale en ander terreine in 'n proses van heropbou en ontwikkeling. Soos baie ander lande worstel Suid-Afrika ook met probleme soos werkloosheid en misdaad. Sosio-politieke en kulturele faktore, byvoorbeeld armoede, hongersnood werkloosheid en 'n tekort aan huise, verskaf 'n ideale omgewing vir kriminele aktiwiteite. In hierdie studie word enkele van die probleme as agtergrond vir die toenemende geweld in die land aangedui. Die statistiek ten opsigte van geweld toon aan dat die aanvaarding van geweld diep gewortel is in die Suid-Afrikaanse kultuur. As gevolg van die hoë misdaadsyfer het slegs 'n klein persentasie van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking algehele gemoedsrus. Hierdie situasie beïnvloed die leerders van die land omdat die skool inherent deel ls van die samelewing. Sonder vrede kan Suid-Afrika nie op enige terrein vooruitgaan nie en daarom is dit so essensieel dat die huidige generasie leerders geleer moet word om konflik vreedsaam op te los. Die statistiek ten opsigte van geweld dui egter daarop dat die leerders van die land nadelig beïnvloed word omdat die demokratiese waardes en die regte van kinders nie gewig dra nie. Die proses van demokrasie het gelei tot 'n totale verandering op opvoedkundige gebied. 'n Onderwysstelsel is gevestig waar onderwys tans in 'n ontwikkelingsproses is en sodoende mense verstandelik, fisies, emosioneel, krities en esteties ontwikkel. Uitkomsgebaseerde onderwys word daarom beskou as 'n waardevolle skuif in die rigting van 'n beter onderwysstelsel. Met hierdie onderwysstelsel word daarna gestreef om die sosiale en historiese ongelykhede in gemeenskappe te oorbrug. Aspekte soos vryheid, gelykheid en vrede wat aansluit by die proses van lewenslange leer, word in die Witskrif oor Onderwys en Opleiding (1995) beklemtoon. Die nuwe onderwysstelsel vereis dat geweld in skole teengestaan moet word, en dat opvoeding benut kan word as 'n instrument vir die bevordering van vrede in die land. Die onderrig van waardes en vaardighede in konflikhantering, konflikresolusie, mediasie, verdraagsaamheid en samewerking kan vrede en stabiliteit in skole bevorder. Hierdie kritiese elemente vorm deel van Opvoeding vir Vrede. Volgens die literatuur word Opvoeding vir Vrede, internasionaal sowel as nasionaal, as 'n moontlike oplossing vir geweld gesien. Uitkomsgebaseerde onderwys het 'n geweldige impak op skole en die onderwyser. Omdat die Nasionale Kwalifikasieraamwerk van die onderwyser verwag om 'n fasiliteerder te wees, verander die aard van die onderwyser se taak. Die onderwyser moet besef dat verandering 'n voortdurende proses is en dat die proses van bemagtiging noodsaaklik is. Bemagtiging in 'n uitkomsgebaseerde onderwysstelsel, en ook ten opsigte van Opvoeding vir Vrede, vereis dat die onderwyser as kurrikulumagent en ontwikkelaar In groter rol moet speel. Die ontwikkeling van 'n effektiewe kurrikulum is uiters moeilik en vereis dinamiese onderwysers wat hierdie veranderinge positief kan hanteer. Die onderwyser word beskou as die stimuleerder van gedragsverandering in die leerder, en is daarom verantwoordelik om leerders binne die skoolkonteks te bemagtig om krities oor sosiale probleme, konflik en geweld te dink. In hierdie studie word gefokus op die belangrikheid van die onderwyser se deelname aan besluitneming. Die menings van onderwysers ten opsigte van Opvoeding vir Vrede word in "n empiriese ondersoek uit onderhoude en vraelyste verkry. Responderende onderwysers het aangedui dat daar "n leemte is ten opsigte van Opvoeding vir Vrede. In die ondersoek het responderende onderwysers: bepaalde gebreke ten opsigte van kennis en vaardighede met betrekking tot Opvoeding vir Vrede getoon en is bepaalde kritiese elemente daarin geïdentifiseer; verklaar dat Opvoeding vir Vrede (en die kritiese elemente daarin) aangewend kan word as "n meganisme om geweld te bekamp; bepaal dat Opvoeding vir Vrede essensieel is binne uitkomsgebaseerde onderwys. Bepaalde vaardighede word op hierdie wyse aan leerders oorgedra en sekere kritiese uitkomste kan bereik word. Responderende onderwysers het aangedui dat Suid-Afrika nie "n vreedsame land is nie en dat elke onderwyser en leerder "n persoonlike bydrae kan lewer tot die verkryging van vrede in die skole, asook in die gemeenskap. Deur Opvoeding vir Vrede kan leerders besef dat hulle "n belangrike rol as vredemakers in Suid-Afrika het. Hierdie navorsingsondersoek het gelei tot die opstel van "n teoretiese kurrikulumraamwerk wat die geïdentifiseerde kritiese elemente van Opvoeding vir Vrede as onderbou neem. Die kurrikulumraamwerk kan verander en aangepas word na gelang van die behoeftes van die leerder en die betrokke gemeenskap.

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