Kredietverwerwing deur leerders in tegniese hoerskole met spesiale verwysing na uitkomsgebaseerde modulere onderrig en akkreditering

Punt, Hendrik Pieter (2000-12)

Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In terms of the latest education legislation, there is a shift of emphasis in the approach to teaching. In particular, there is a move from contents-based learning to outcomes-based learning. It has been shown that technical education is becoming more and more expensive. Manual skills and the teaching of these at school is therefore still of cardinal importance. In the technical school the learner receives specialised training. Following the successful completion of the Senior Certificate examinations, the learner receives a matric certificate. This certificate does not give an indication of specific skills, however. If the learner could receive some accreditation for the skills which he/she has already mastered, it would count in his/her favour. The purpose of this study is to investigate the degree to which the learner can transfer his/her acquired technical knowledge and skills to other training institutions or employers in the form of credits. In the first chapter, the historical background of an outcomes-based learning approach in South Africa, as well as the implications of legislation for technical high schools is researched. A number of necessary concepts are also explained in this chapter. In chapter two, the structure of a modular approach in technical education is looked at in more detail. Different types of modules, the advantages and disadvantages of a modular system, as well as different models for modular curriculum design is discussed. The already tested competence-based modular approach, as well as the newly proposed outcomes-based learning approach is discussed in detail in chapter three. Since it is the competence-based modular approach which is largely used in technical education, it is important to investiqate the shift to an outcomesbased approach in technical education. In the fourth chapter, specific modular points of intersection between the training of apprentices and secondary school education are looked at. The feasibility of acquiring credits in the technical high school is discussed on the basis of an empirical study in chapter five. The possible applications of the implementation of an outcomes-based learning approach in technical high schools are set out in chapter six and the findings of this research are summarised in chapter seven. The subject of this research is currently very topical and if the findings contained therein are applied in practice, many of the modern challenges faced by the education system could be addressed. Learners should receive education and training which prepare them practically for their roles as citizens, while also enabling them to enter the job market or create work for themselves. The importance of an education system which continually determines the needs of both the national and international markets, investigates technological and other relevant tendencies and develops current curriculums in such a way that learners will always be competitive cannot be emphasised enough. An outcomes-based approach places much less emphasis on content-based syllabuses and merely exposes learners to balanced learning programmes in which the acquisition of relevant knowledge, skills, attitudes and values carries equal weight. Because of the changes in education and training, the teaching approach in the technical high school is extremely important. To some degree, technical education is already specialised education. Although learning takes place at school, the acquired knowledge is not currently transferable to other training institutions in the form of credits. This situation is contradictory to the National Qualifications Framework, in which an outcomes-based approach to education is proposed.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Volgens die nuutste onderwyswetgewing is daar in die onderwys 'n klemverskuiwing ten opsigte van onderrigbenadering. Daar word vanaf 'n inhoudsgerigte na 'n uitkomsgebaseerde onderrigbenadering beweeg. Afdoende bewyse bestaan dat tegniese opleiding al hoe duurder raak. Die noodsaaklikheid van die ontwikkeling van handvaardighede daarin op skool is daarom steeds van kardinale belang. In die tegniese skoolontvang die leerder bepaalde gespesialiseerde opleiding. Na die suksesvolle aflegging van die Senior Sertifikaateksamen, ontvang die leerder 'n matrieksertifikaat. Hierdie sertifikaat dui egter nie spesifieke bevoegdhede aan nie. Indien die leerder krediet sou kon ontvang vir die bevoegdhede wat hy/sy reeds suksesvol bemeester het, sou dit in sy/haar guns tel. Die doel van hierdie studie is 'n ondersoek na die mate waarin die leerder sy/haar verworwe tegniese kennis en vaardighede na ander opleidingsinstansies of werkverskaffers kan oordra in die vorm van krediete. In die eerste hoofstuk word die historiese agtergrond van 'n uitkomsgebaseerde onderrigbenadering in Suid-Afrika nagevors, asook die implikasies van wetgewing vir tegniese hoërskole nagegaan. Bepaalde tersaaklike begrippe word ook in hierdie hoofstuk verduidelik. In hoofstuk twee word die struktuur van 'n modulêre benadering binne tegniese onderwys van nader beskou. Verskillende soorte modules, die voor- en nadele van 'n modulêre stelsel, asook verskeie modelle vir 'n modulêre kurrikulumontwerp, word bespreek. Die reeds beproefde bevoegdheidsgebaseerde modulêre benadering asook die nuutvoorgestelde uitkomsgebaseerde onderrigbenadering, word breedvoerig in hoofstuk drie bespreek. Aangesien hoofsaaklik die bevoegdheidsgebaseerde modulêre benadering in tegniese onderwys toegepas word, is dit belangrik om die noodsaaklikheid van 'n klemverskuiwing na 'n uitkomsgebaseerde benadering in tegniese onderwys te ondersoek. In die vierde hoofstuk word daar spesifiek gekyk na bepaalde modulêre raakpunte tussen vakleerlingopleiding en sekondêreskoolopleiding. Die haalbaarheid van kredietverwerwing in die tegniese hoërskool word in hoofstuk vyf na aanleiding van 'n empiriese ondersoek bespreek. Die toepassingsmoontlikhede vir die implementering van 'n uitkomsgebaseerde onderrigbenadering in die tegniese hoërskool word daarna in hoofstuk ses uiteengesit en die bevindinge van die navorsing in hoofstuk sewe saamgevat. Die onderwerp van hierdie navorsing is tans baie aktueel en indien die bevindinge daarin vervat in die praktyk toegepas sou word, sal heelwat van die moderne uitdagings wat aan die onderwys gestel word, aangespreek word. Leerders behoort onderwys en opleiding te ontvang wat hulle prakties op hul rolle as landsburgers voorberei en hulle ook bekwaam maak om tot die arbeidsmark toe te tree of vir hulleself werk te skep. Die belangrikheid van 'n onderrigstelsel wat voortdurend behoeftes in nasionale en internasionale markte bepaal, tegnologiese en ander relevante tendense naspeur en huidige kurrikulums só ontwikkel dat leerders altyd kompeterend is, kan nie genoeg beklemtoon word nie. 'n Uitkomsgebaseerde benadering plaas minder klem op inhoudsgebaseerde sillabusse en stel leerders bloot aan gebalanseerde leerprogramme waarin die verwerwing van relevante kennis, vaardighede, houdings en waardes ewe veel gewig dra. As gevolg van die klemverskuiwings in onderwys en opleiding is die leerbenadering wat in die tegniese hoërskool gevolg word van kardinale belang. Tegniese onderrig is in 'n sekere mate reeds gespesialiseerde onderrig. Alhoewel leer op skool plaasgevind het, is die verworwe kennis tans nie oordraagbaar na ander opleidingsinstansies in die vorm van krediete vir die leerders nie. Hierdie situasie is in stryd met die bedoeling van die Nasionale Kwalifikasieraamwerk wat 'n uitkomsgebaseerde onderwysbenadering voorstaan

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