Investigating the introduction of a broadspectrum antiviral mechanism into grapevine

Wilsen, Kathleen L. (Kathleen Lucy) (2000-03)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are potent toxins produced by a wide range of evolutionarily diverse plants. These toxins cause cell death by physically dismantling ribosomal RNA and shutting down protein synthesis. They also have a strong antiviral activity. Some believe that the antiviral property of RIPs is a function of ribosomal inactivation, others believe that the two properties are unrelated. RIPs are non-specific in their antiviral activity. Transgenic RIPexpressing plants are resistant to a wide spectrum of viruses. Many different viruses threaten grapevine. It is not practical to design individual remedies for each of these viruses. In this study, we screen the grapevine genome for the presence of a RIP gene using degenerate PCR primers. If a RIP gene does exist in grapevine, it is not being expressed in a useful way. We also clone several well-documented RIP genes from various plants into pGEM-T Easy: dianthin from Dianthus caryophyllus; p-Iuffin from Luffa octandra and mirabilis antiviral protein (MAP) from Mirabilis jalapa. These isolated genes are then subcloned into a selection of expression vectors: dianthin into pKK223-3, a bacterial expression vector; p-Iuffin into pCambia3301, a plant expression vector; and MAP into pFLAG, a yeast expression vector. The constructs prepared in this project may be used for the synthesis of RIP molecules. The exogenous application of RIPs has been shown to protect plants from viruses. Transformation of grapevine with the RIP-containing plant expression vector may result in a variety of vine that is resistant to a wide range viruses. This thesis describes preliminary work in an attempt to impart broad-spectrum antiviral resistance to grapevine.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ribosomale-inaktiverende proteïne (RIPs) is kragtige toksienes wat deur 'n wye verskeidenheid evolusionêr diverse plante verskaf word. Hierdie toksienes veroorsaak die dood van die selle deur fisies die ribosomale RNA af te breek en proteïensintese stop te sit. Hulle toon ook 'n sterk antivirale aktiwiteit. Sommige voel dat die antivirale eienskap van RIPs 'n funksie van ribosomale inaktivering is, terwyl ander glo dat die twee eienskappe onafhanklik optree. RIPs is in hul antivirale aktiwiteit onspesifiek. Transgeniese RIP-weergewende plante toon weerstand teen 'n wye spektrum virusse. Wingerd word deur baie verskillende virusse aangeval. Dit is onprakties om spesifieke teenmiddels vir elk van die virusse te ontwerp. In hierdie studie word die wingerdgenoom vir die voorkoms van 'n RIP-geen ondersoek, deur die gebruik van degeneratiewe PKR primers. As daar wel 'n RIP-geen in wingerd voorkom, word dit nie in 'n nuttige manier uitgedruk nie. Ons het ook 'n groep goedgedokumentêre RIP-gene vanuit verskeie plante in pGEM- T Easy gekloneer: dianthin vanuit Dianthus caryophyllus; p-Iuffin vanuit Luffa octandra; en mirabilis antivirale proteïen (MAP) vanuit Mirabilis jalapa. Hierdie geïsoleerde gene is toe in verskeie uitdrukkingsvektore gesubkloneer: dianthin in pKK223-3, 'n bakterïele uitdrukkingsvektor; p-Iuffin in pCambia3301, 'n plant uitdrukkingsvektor; en MAP in pFLAG, 'n gis uitdrukkingsvektor. Die constructs wat in hierdie projek voorberei is, kan gebruik word vir die sintese van RIP molekules. Dit is gevind dat die eksogeniese toepassing van RIPs plante teen virus-infeksie beskerm. Die transformasie van wingerd met die RIP-bevattende plant ekspressievektor kan 'n wingerd wat teen 'n wye verskeidenheid virusse bestand is tot stand bring. Hierdie tesis beskryf die voorlopige werk in 'n poging om breë-spektrum antivirale weerstand in wingerd deelagtig te maak.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/51803
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