ITEM VIEW

Genetic and enzymatic characterisation of wood degrading strains of Phanerochaete species

dc.contributor.advisorJanse, B. J. H.
dc.contributor.advisorVan Zyl, W. H.
dc.contributor.authorDe Koker, T. H. (Theodorus Hermanus), 1965-
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Microbiology.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2012-08-27T11:34:40Z
dc.date.available2012-08-27T11:34:40Z
dc.date.issued2000-03
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/51775
dc.descriptionThesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: White rot fungi are of interest in the paper and pulp industry because of their removal of lignin from wood. In this study over 600 Basidiomycete fungi were isolated from indigenous forests as well as from commercial Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. plantations in South Africa. One hundred isolates were identified to genus level. Biochemical tests were done to screen the fungal cultures for characteristics that are favourable for biopulping, e.g. low cellulase activity with concomitant high activity of ligninolytic enzymes. Various Phanerochaete isolates with potentially high ligninolytic activity were identified. Although Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. has previously been isolated from the indigenous forest at Knysna in South Africa, this study showed that P. chrysosporium was a natural coloniser of wood chip piles in South Africa, indicating potential for application in industry. A possible new species of Phanerochaete, viz. Phanerochaete pseudomagnoliae nom. provo (strain PP25) from decayed wood collected in Stellenbosch, South Africa, was described and illustrated. It differs from previously described Phanerochaete species in having smaller basidiospares, and in the formation of few chlamydospores on malt extract agar but more on xylose containing media. The potential of using internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences (ITS) to infer phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Phanerochaete was investigated. Consensus phylogenetic trees could be presented, but the presence of ambiguous aligning sequences within the ITS made inferring of phylogenetic relationships within the whole genus difficult. Fifty-five South African strains of P. chrysosporium were screened for lignin peroxidase (liP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and glyoxal oxidase (GLOX) enzymes. Manganese peroxidase activity was quantified on agar media. The liP and GLOX activities of 13 selected strains, including control strains and P. pseudomagnoliae (PP25), were also quantified on agar media. Differences in MnP and GLOX activities existed among the strains. Preliminary biochemical characterisation of strain PP25 indicated that the most important difference was the apparent unique regulation of ligninolytic enzymes. Under low nitrogen, liP activity of the selected strains showed no significant variation, whereas strain PP25 had significantly increased liP levels under high nitrogen conditions. Restriction fragment length polymorph isms of the lignin and manganese peroxidase gene DNA fragments showed variability among strains, whereas there was probably only allelic variation for the glox gene DNA fragments. Previous research has indicated xylose oxidation activity within P. chrysosporium. To investigate whether GLOX can oxidise xylose, a purified recombinant GLOX (rGLOX) from P. chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 Burds. was used in this study. This rGLOX oxidised D-xylose and D-glucose (D-xylose > D-glucose) to produce H202. Xylose was oxidised to xylono-1 ,4-lactone with a 1:1 stoichiometric relationship between H202 produced and xylose used. Xylono-1,4-lactone was converted non-enzymatically to xylonate. This suggested that the furanose form of xylose, rather than the pyranose form, is a substrate of GLOX. The production of H202 and the removal of inhibitory compounds by GLOX could enhance ligninolytic activity. . To conclude, unique strains of P. chrysosporium have been isolated from South Africa with potential biotechnological use in paper manufacturing. The relationship of P. pseudomagnoliae nom. provo to other Phanerochaete species was evaluated and light was shed on the possible role of GLOX in lignin degradation.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Witvrot swamme is van belang vir die papier en pulp industrie omdat hulle lignin vanaf hout kan verwyder. Meer as 600 Sasidiomiseet fungi, afkomstig vanaf inheemse woude asook kommersiële Eucalyptus spp. en Pinus spp. plantasies, IS geïsoleer. Een honderd isolate is tot op genusvlak geïdentifiseer. Die isolate is biochemies vir eienskappe wat voordelig vir "bioverpulping" kon wees, bv. die gelyktydige produksie van lae sellulosemaar hoë ligninolitiese ensiemaktiwiteit, getoets. Verskeie isolate met potensieel hoë vlakke van ligninolitiese aktiwiteit is verkry. Alhoewel Phanerochaete chrysosporium Surds. vantevore in die Knysna inheemse woud in Suid-Afrika geïsoleer is, het hierdie studie gewys dat P. chrysosporium natuurlik op hope houtblokkies voorgekom, met moontlike toepasing in die industrie. Isolaat PP25, geisoleer vannaf verrottende hout te Stellenbosch, Suid Afrika, is as 'n potensieel nuwe spesie van die genus Phanerochaete beskryf en as Phanerochaete pseudomagnoliae nom. provo benoem. Hierdie isolaat verskil van ander Phanerochaete-spesies daarin dat dit kleiner basidiospore vorm en nie klamydospore op moutekstrakagar produseer nie, maar wel op media wat xilose bevat. Die potensiaal van intern getranskribeerde spasieerder ONS opeenvolging vir die aflei van filogenetiese verhoudings tussen spesies van die genus Phanerochaete is ondersoek. Konsensus filogenetiese bome kon bepaal word, maar die teenwoordigheid van varieerbare areas het die afleiding van filogenetiese verwantskappe vir die hele genus bemoeilik. Vyf-en-vyftig Suid-Afrikaanse isolate van P. chrysosporium is vir die teenwoordigheid van lignienperoksidase- (liP), mangaanperoksidase- (MnP) en glioksaaloksidase (GLOX)-aktiwiteit getoets. Vlakke van MnP-aktiwiteit is op agarplate gekwantifiseer. Vlakke van LiP- en GLOX-ensieme op agarplate is vir 13 geselekteerde isolate, insluitend kontroles en ras PP25, gekwantifiseer. Aktiwiteit van MnP en GLOX het statisties betekenisvol tussen isolate verskil. Lignienperoksidase-aktiwiteit onder lae stikstof toestande het nie statisties betekenisvol van mekaar verskil nie. Onder hoë stikstof toestande het isolaat PP25 wel verhoogde liP-aktiwiteit getoon. Restriksie fragment polimorfismes van die lignien- en mangaanperoxidase-gene het variasie getoon, terwyl waarskynlik slegs alleliese variasie vir die glox geen waargeneem IS. Rekombinante GLOX (GLOX vanaf P. chrysosporium BKM-F-1767) het xilose en glukose (D-xilose > D-glukose) geoksideer met meegaande produksie van H202. Xilose is na xilono-1,4-laktoon geoksideer met 'n 1:1 stoigiometrie tussen H202-produksie en xilose verbruik. Xilono-1,4-laktoon is nieensiematies na xilonaat omgeskakel. Bogenoemde resultaat dui aan dat die furanose vorm van xilose die werklike substraat vir GLOX is. Deur die meegaande produksie van H202 en die verwydering van inhiberende produkte word lignoliese aangehelp. Ten slote, unieke P. chrysosporium rasse met potensiële gebruik in papiervervaardiging is in Suid-Afrika geisoleer. Die genetiese diversiteit van 'n nuwe spesie, P. pseudomagnoliae, is bepaal en nuwe lig is op die potensiële rol van GLOX in lignienafbraak gewerp.af_ZA
dc.format.extent164 p. : ill.
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectWood-pulp -- Biotechnologyen_ZA
dc.subjectWood -- Microbiologyen_ZA
dc.subjectWood-decaying fungien_ZA
dc.subjectBasidiomycetes -- Genetics
dc.subjectPhanerochaete -- Geneticsen_ZA
dc.titleGenetic and enzymatic characterisation of wood degrading strains of Phanerochaete speciesen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

ITEM VIEW