Enzymatic pitch control in the kraft pulping and bleaching of Eucalyptus spp.

Scheepers, Gerhardus C. (Gerhardus Coenraad) (2000-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The extractive materials in wood often cause pitch problems in pulp mills. During pulping and bleaching extractives are released from the wood and pulp and later stick to ceramic and metal parts, forming pitch deposits. Pitch deposits impair both product quality and production rates. It decreases the efficiency of pulp washing, screening, centrifugal cleaning, and refining, and can disrupt many paper machine operations. The deposits also break loose from equipment and cause spots in the final product. There are a few triggering mechanisms that induce pitch deposition. Hydrodynamic or mechanical shear can destabilise the colloidal pitch emulsion, causing pitch to agglomerate and deposits to form. Similarly, sudden temperature drops and/or pH shocks and/or the introduction of water hardness ions from fresh water inlets or showers can also cause pitch deposits by destabilising the colloidal pitch emulsion. Inorganic salts, such as calcium carbonate, can catalyse pitch deposition by acting as the building blocks for the sticky pitch. Calcium ions in the white water can react with fatty acids, forming insoluble, sticky calcium soaps. Triglycerides have also been shown to be a major contributor to pitch deposition in kraft pulping and bleaching mills. It forms a sticky deposit to which less sticky particles attach. To attain an improved understanding of pitch problems associated with the kraft pulping and bleaching of Eucalyptus spp., various analyses were done on wood- and pulp extractives and pitch from a South African kraft pulp mill. High molecular weight compounds (involatile) constituted a large portion of the extracts and pitch. Approximately 40% of volatile Eucalyptus grandis extract was f3-sitosterol, with fatty acids (22.8%) and triglycerides (15.5%) also making a substantial contribution. Fatty acid amides were a prominent fraction of pulp extracts from the latter stages of bleaching. The amides constituted 38.3% and triglycerides 10.1% to total volatile pitch deposits. Lipases hydrolyse triglycerides and could therefore help to reduce pitch problems. Consequently 381 filamentous fungi isolated from indigenous and commercial forests in South Africa were screened for lipase activity on tributyrin and Tween 80. Eight strains were selected and the tributyrin and Tween 80 assays were repeated by monitoring lipase activity over a seven-day period. The selected strains were also assayed for their activity toward p-nitrophenyl palmitate. Ophiostoma piliferum Cartapip 58™ and Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767, two strains known for respectively their biodepitching and biopulping ability, were' used as controls. A few of the strains compared well and even outperformed the control strains, indicating their potential for use in pitch control. The effect of pretreatment with the eight selected fungal strains on E. grandis wood- and pulp extractives was determined. Cartapip 58™ and P. chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 were used as control strains. Several of the strains compared well to the control strains in their ability to reduce the triglyceride content of wood extract. The South African isolate, white-rot fungus Phanerochaete psuedomagnoliae nom. prov., reduced triglyceride content significantly. Consequently it can act as an agent for both biopulping and biodepitching. The treated wood samples had a lower triglyceride content than the sterile controls. Consequently more triglycerides would be released into process waters by the sterile controls than the treated samples. The effect of commerciallipases on deposited brown stock pulp extract was also evaluated. The lipases did not reduce the triglyceride content of the deposited extract. The addition of lipases in pulping and bleaching processes would therefore not affect already deposited pitch.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die ekstrakstowwe van hout veroorsaak dikwels 'n neerslag tydens verpulping. Gedurende verpulping en bleiking kom ekstrakstowwe van die hout enpulp vry en kleef aan keramiek- en metaalonderdele. Gevolglik benadeel dié neerslag produkkwaliteit en produksietempo. Dit verlaag die effektiwiteit van pulpwas, sifting, sentrifugale skoonmaakprosesse en suiwering, en kan die werkverrigting van papiermasjiene ontwrig. Die neerslag kan ook later los breek en kolletjies op die finale produk veroorsaak. Verskeie meganismes kan die neerslag veroorsaak. Hidrodinamiese of meganiese wrywing kan die kolloïdale ekstrakstofemulsie destabiliseer en sodoende die ekstrakstof laat konglomereer en neerslaan. Op soortgelyke wyse veroorsaak skielike temperatuurverlaging en/of pH-skokke en/of die toevoeging van ione in varswater om waterhardheid te beheer ook die neerslag deur die kolloïdale ekstrakstofemulsie te destabiliseer. Anorganiese sout soos kalsiumkarbonaat kan neerslagvorming kataliseer omdat dit optree as bousteen vir die klewerige, sementagtige ekstrakstowwe. Kalsiumione in die proseswater kan ook reageer met vetsure om onoplosbare, klewerige kalsiumsepe te vorm. Dit is bewys dat trigliseriede een van die hoofoorsake is in die vorming van die neerslag tydens kraft verpulpingen bleikingprosesse. Om die neerslagreaksie wat met die kraft verpulping en bleiking van Eucalyptus spp. geassosieer word, beter te verstaan, is verskeie analises op hout- en pulpekstrakte asook die neerslag van 'n Suid-Afrikaanse kraft verpulpingsaanleg uitgevoer. Hoë molekulêre massa (nie-vlugtige) stowwe het 'n groot gedeelte van die ekstrakte en neerslag uitgemaak. Ongeveer 40% van die vlugtige Eucalyptus grand is ekstrak bestaan uit ~-sitosterol met vet sure (22.8%) en trigliseriede (15.5%) wat ook aansienlike bydraes lewer. Vetsuuramiede verteenwoordig 'n beduidende komponent van pulpekstrak by die laaste stadiums van bleiking. Die amiede het 38.3% en trigliseriede 10.1%tot die vlugtige fraksie van die neerslag bygedra. Lipases hidroliseer trigliseriede en kan dus help om neerslagprobleme te voorkom. Gevolglik is 381 filamentagtige fungi geïsoleer uit inheemse en kommersiële woude van Suid-Afrika en hul lipase-aktiwiteit op tributyrin en Tween 80 geëvalueer. Agt rasse is geselekteer en die tributyrin en Tween 80 toetse is herhaal deur lipase-aktiwiteit oor 'n sewe-dag periode te monitor. Die geselekteerde rasse is ook getoets vir lipase-aktiwiteit met p-nitrofenielpalmitaat. Ophiostoma piliferum Cartapip 58™ en Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767, twee rasse wat daarvoor bekend staan vir onderskeidelik hul vermoë om houtekstrakstowwe te verminder en te bioverpulp, is as kontroles gebruik. 'n Paar van die geselekteerde rasse het goed vergelyk en selfs beter presteer as die kontrolerasse; 'n aanduiding van hul potensiaal om neerslagreaksies te beheer. Die effek van voorafbehandeling met die agt geselekteerde fungi rasse op E. grandis hout- en pulpekstrak is vasgestel. Cartapip 58™ en P. chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 is gebruik as kontrolerasse. Verskeie rasse het goed vergelyk met die kontrolerasse in hul vermoë om die trigliseriedinhoud van die houtekstrak te verlaag. Die Suid-Afrikaanse isolaat, witverrottingswam Phanerochaete pseudomagnoliae nom. prov., het ook die trigliseried inhoud beduidend verminder. Gevolglik sou dit as 'n middel kon dien vir beide neerslagvoorkoming en bioverpulping. Die trigliseriedinhoud van die behandelde monsters was laer as dié van steriele kontroles. Gevolglik sal meer trigliseriede in proseswater vrygestel word deur die steriele kontroles as die behandelde monsters. Die effek van kommersiële lipases op ongebleikte kraft pulpekstrakneerslag is ook geëvalueer. Omdat lipases nie die trigliseriedinhoud van die neerslag kon verlaag nie sal die gebruik van lipases dus nie die ekstrakstofneerslag in verpulpings- en bleikingsprosesse beïnvloed nie.

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