Mapping and restructuring of an Ae. kotschyi derived translocation segment in common wheat

Heyns, I.C. (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-12)

Thesis (PhD (Genetics))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Includes bibliography.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The wild relatives are an important source of new genes for the genetic improvement of wheat. At Stellenbosch University the leaf and stripe rust resistance genes Lr54 and Yr37 were transferred from Aegilops kotschyi to chromosome 2DL of wheat. In an attempt to reduce the size of the whole-arm translocation on which the resistance genes occur, homoeologous pairing was induced between the wheat and corresponding Ae. kotschyi chromatin. The purpose of this study was to: (i) Evaluate the testcross progeny thus obtained; identify translocation recombinants that retained Lr54/Yr37 and to characterize these using molecular markers (ii) Test for the presence of genes for photoperiod insensitivity (Ppd) and reduced height (Rht) believed to be associated with the translocation (iii) Develop a SCAR marker for the most useful recombinant that could be recovered. Ten putative translocation recombinants were identified following the screening of 159 hemizygous testcross F1 plants with three microsatellite markers specific for chromosome arm 2DL. The recombinants were then characterized with another five microsatellite markers. Using the eight microsatellite markers the recombinants were ordered in two size categories with recombinant #74 being the shortest and having retained only proximal alien chromatin on 2DL. In addition to microsatellite markers, RAPDs, RGAs, AFLPs and SCAR markers were genetically mapped to the translocation and further resolved the recombinants into three size categories. In an attempt to find suitable markers linked to the shortest recombinant (#74) a polymorphic 410 bp AFLP fragment produced with the enzyme/selective nucleotide combination EcoRI – AAC/MseI – CAT, was converted into a dominant SCAR marker. In addition three microsatellite markers that mapped to recombinant #74 provided a useful recessive molecular marker system to detect Lr54/Yr37. Evaluation of the 10 recombinants with four 2DS-specific microsatellite markers revealed a large deletion of this chromosome arm in recombinant #74. This deletion may affect plant phenotypic characteristics and a strategy to replace the deleted region in recombinant #74 is proposed. To test for the presence of a gene for photoperiod insensitivity on the translocation, translocation-carriers plus controls were subjected to long and short day treatments, and the effect on time to flowering was studied. However, no evidence was found for the presence of such a gene. A height experiment to test for the presence of an Rht gene on the translocation confirmed its presence. This gene (designated H) appeared to be different from Rht8 on chromosome 2DS and was mapped on 2DL. While H does not occur in a chromosome region that corresponds with the location of Rht8, it does not rule out the possibility that they could be orthologous loci. Plant height data obtained for recombinant #74 suggested that H was lost through recombination in this particular recombinant. A greenhouse experiment suggested that the full-length translocation increased 100 kernel mass but had a detrimental effect on overall plant yield. Since a much shorter recombinant (#74) has been obtained, this will also have to be evaluated for associated effects. Such an evaluation needs to be done under commercial growing conditions and should involve the comparison of near-isogenic bulks with and without recombinant chromosome #74. The stripe rust resistance gene (Yr37) was mapped by screening hemizygous TF2 progeny of the 10 recombinants with Puccinia striiformis pathotype 6E22A+. Recombinant #74 retained both Lr54 and Yr37 and the two genes therefore occur towards the centromere.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wilde verwante spesies is ‘n belangrike bron van nuwe gene vir die genetiese verbetering van koring. By die Universiteit van Stellenbosch is die blaar-roes en streep-roes weerstandsgene Lr54 en Yr37 vanaf Aegilops kotschyi na chromosoom 2DL van koring oorgedra. ‘n Poging is vervolgens aangewend om die vol-armtranslokasie waarop die weerstandsgene voorkom te verklein deur homoeoloë paring tussen die koring en ooreenstemmende Ae. kotschyi chromatien te induseer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was daarom as volg: (a) Evaluering van die verkreë toetskruis-nageslag asook die identifisering en karakterisering van translokasie rekombinante wat Lr54/Yr37 behou het. (b) Toetsing vir fotoperiode onsensitiwiteits- (Ppd) en verkorte plant-hoogte (Rht) gene wat moontlik op die translokasie kon voorkom. (c) Die ontwikkeling van ‘n volgorde-spesifieke polimerase kettingreaksie (PKR) vir die mees bruikbare rekombinant. Tien translokasie rekombinante is geïdentifiseer nadat 159 hemisigotiese toetskruis F1-plante met drie mikrosatelliet-merkers, spesifiek vir chromosoom-arm 2DL, ge-evalueer is. Die rekombinante is hierna met vyf verdere mikrosatellietmerkers getoets. Die data van die agt mikrosatelliet-loci het die rekombinante in twee grootte-kategorieë geplaas waarvan rekombinant #74 die kortste was met slegs die proksimale gedeelte van 2DL wat uit vreemde chromatien bestaan. Behalwe mikrosatellite-merkers is toevallig-geamplifiseerde polimorfiese DNS (RAPD), weerstandsgeen-analoog (RGA), geamplifiseerde volgordelengte polimorfisme (AFLP) en volgorde-gekarakteriseerde geamplifiseerde-streke (SCAR) merkers ook geneties op die translokasie gekarteer. Data van die addisionele merkers het dit moontlik gemaak om die rekombinante in drie grootte-kategorieë te skei. Pogings om ‘n merker vir die kortse rekombinant (#74) te vind, het gelei tot die omskakeling van ‘n 410 bp polimorfiese AFLP-fragment (geproduseer met die ensiem/selektiewenukleotied kombinasie EcoRI - AAC/MseI - CAT), na ‘n dominante, volgordespesifieke PKR-merker. Hierbenewens kan drie mikrosatelliet-merkers wat op rekombinant #74 karteer as resessiewe merkers vir die identifisering van Lr54/Yr37 gebruik word. Die evaluering van die 10 rekombinante met vier chromosoom 2DSspesifieke mikrosatelliet-merkers het ‘n groot delesie van chromosoom-arm 2DS in rekombinant #74 uitgewys. Die delesie mag plant fenotipiese kenmerke beïnvloed en daarom is ‘n strategie vir die vervanging daarvan in rekombinant #74 voorgestel. Ten einde te toets of ‘n geen vir fotoperiode-onsensitiwiteit op die translokaie voorkom is translokasie-draers en kontroles aan lang- en kortdag-behandelings onderwerp en is die effek hiervan op dae-tot-blom gemeet. Geen bewyse vir so ‘n geen kon gevind word nie. ‘n Hoogte-eksperiment om te toets vir die teenwoordigheid van ‘n Rht-geen op die translokasie, het bevestig dat so ‘n geen wel voorkom. Die geen (voorgestelde simbool H) is gekarteer op 2DL en verskil oënskynlik van Rht8 op chromosoom 2DS. Die verskillende chromosoom-ligging van H en Rht8 skakel egter nie die moontlikheid dat hulle ortoloë loci mag wees uit nie. Plant-hoogte data vir rekombinant #74 het daarop gedui dat H nie meer in hierdie rekombinant voorkom nie. Data van ‘n glashuis-eksperiment het daarop gedui dat die vollengte-translokasie 100-korrel-massa verhoog maar dat dit plant-opbrengs verlaag. Aangesien ‘n aansienlike korter rekombinant (#74) verkry is, sal dit ook vir gekoppelde effekte getoets moet word. So ‘n evaluering moet egter onder kommersiële toestande gedoen word met gebruik van naby isogeniese-lyne met en sonder rekombinante chromosoom #74. Die streep-roes weerstandgeen (Yr37) is gekarteer deur hemisigotiese TF2- nageslag van die 10 rekombinante te toets vir weerstand teen Puccinia striiformis patotipe 6E22A+. Rekombinant #74 het beide Lr54 en Yr37 behou en die twee gene karteer dus naby die sentromeer.

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