Die fabriekswese in stedelike ontwikkeling : 'n institusioneel-ekonomiese perspektief op die Suid-Afrikaanse ervaring

Lotter, Johan C (2000-12)

Thesis (DPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The historical Apartheid policy caused a lack ofinterest in metropolitan management in South Africa. Metropolitan management mainly focussed on limiting the accessibility ofthe non-white population to economic activities in urban areas. White institutions directed the intra-urban structure of urban areas to maintain their dominant economic, social and political position in the South African community. Increasing urbanization and constitutional changes in South Africa since 1991, together with international theoretical developments, necessitated a reconsideration of the nature of metropolitan management. For this purpose the objectives of metropolitan management were reformulated and industrial location was identified as an instrument in metropolitan management to increase the accessibility to economic activities. Itwas also determined that the non-establishment of industries intraditional non -white urban areas and the long distances between workplace and residential areas in North Gauteng limited the accessibility to non-whites. The New Institutional Approach, which serves as the theoretical starting point in this study, emphasises the role of rival individuals and interest groups in determining the intra-urban structure. An analysis of the role of primarily white individuals and interest groups, namely the community, the local and central governments, and the industrial entrepreneur, showed that the local and central governments played a determining role in establishing the intra-urban structure of the study area. The approach of the community and industrial entrepreneurs was mostly directed towards their own private interests and the inaccessibility of the study area for non-white population groups did not concern them. The institutions of the town councillors and officials of the local governments originated from exogenous institutions which were enforced on local governments from the central government and endogenic institutions which derived from a long tradition of urban planning. These institutions do not relate to the realities of the South African community and therefore a new institutional framework for decisionmaking on intra-urban structure was needed. Although this study only concerns one metropolitan area, the study area manifests all the characteristics of a typical Apartheid city in South Africa and the conclusions can be used in the reformulation of metropolitan management for most areas in South Africa.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die historiese Apartheidsbeleid het veroorsaak dat metropolitaanse bestuur in Suid- Afrika nie veel aandag gekry het nie. Metropolitaanse bestuur was grootliks gerig op die beperking van die toeganklikheid van nie-blanke bevolkingsgroepe tot ekonomiese aktiwiteite in stedelike gebiede. Blanke instellings het die intra-stedelike struktuurvan stedelike gebiede gerig om huloorheersende ekonomiese, sosiale en politieke posisie in die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing te handhaaf. Toenemende verstedeliking en konstitusionele verandering in Suid-Afrika sedert 1991, tesame met internasionale teoretiese ontwikkelinge, het 'n herbesinning oor die aard van metropolitaanse bestuur genoodsaak. Vir doeleindes hiervan is die doelstellings van metropolitaanse bestuur herformuleer en is fabrieksvestiging as 'n instrument in metropolitaanse bestuur geïdentifiseer om die toeganklikheid tot ekonomiese aktiwiteite te verhoog. Daar is bepaal dat die gebrek aan fabrieksvestiging in die tradisionele nie-blanke stedelike gebiede en die groot afstande tussen werks- en woonplek in Noord-Gauteng toeganklikheid vir nie-blankes beperk het. Die Nuwe Institusionele Benadering, wat as 'n teoretiese vertrekpunt vir die studie dien, beklemtoon die rol van mededingende indiwidue en belangegroepe in die bepaling van die intra-stedelike struktuur. In Ontleding van die rol van hoofsaaklik blanke indiwidue en belangegroepe, nl. die gemeenskap, die plaaslike en sentrale owerhede, en die fabrieksondernemer, het getoon dat die plaaslike en sentrale owerhede 'n bepalende rol gespeel het in die vasstelling van die intra-stedelike struktuur van die studiegebied. Die gemeenskap en fabrieksondernemers se benadering was grootliks gerig op hul eie partikuliere belang en die ontoeganklikheid van die studiegebied vir nie-blanke bevolkingsgroepe was nie vir hulle ter sake nie. Die instellings van die stadsraadslede en amptenare van plaaslike owerhede het lVontstaan uit eksogene instellings wat op plaaslike owerhede vanaf die sentrale owerheid afgedwing was en endogene instellings wat uit In lang stedelike beplanningstradisie ontstaan het. Dié instellings hou nie verband met die realiteite van die Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskap nie en daarom word Innuwe institusionele raamwerk vereis waarbinne besluitneming oor die intra-stedelike struktuur kan plaasvind. Hoewel hierdie studie slegs In gevallestudie van een metropolitaanse gebied is, openbaar die studiegebied al die eienskappe van die tipiese Apartheidstad in Suid- Afrika en die gevolgtrekkings kan gebruik word in die herformulering van die aard van metropolitaanse bestuur vir die meeste gebiede in Suid-Afrika.

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