Comparative modelling of phosphorous production in rural catchments

Matji, Maselaganye Petrus (2000-12)

Thesis (M.Ing.)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The objective of this research has been to compare nonpoint sources assessment techniques for simulating phosphorous production in rural catchments which have a variety ofland use types. Four nonpoint source assessment techniques capable of simulating phosphorous production, operating at different spatial and temporal resolutions, were selected after an intensive literature review. The model selection criteria included the capability to simulate phosphorous production, the need for the study to cover a range of spatial and temporal resolutions, model data requirements, model affordability and availability in South Africa. The models selected using these criteria are the Phosphorous Export Model (PEM) (Weddepohl & Meyer, 1992), Impoundment and River Management and Planning Assessment Tool for Water Quality Simulation Model (IMPAQ) (DWAF,1995), the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) (Bricknell,1993) and the Agricultural Catchments Research Unit Model (ACRU) (Smithers and Caldecott, 1994). Four ofthe study catchments were selected within the Berg River basin in the Western Cape and the remaining four were selected within the Amatole catchments in the Eastern Cape. The four subcatchments in the Berg River basin are the Twenty-Four Rivers, Leeu River, Kompanjies River and Doring River catchments and the four in the Amatole catchments are the Upper Buffalo, Cwencwe, Yellowwoods and Gqunube River catchments. The range of land use/cover types comprises: Western Cape catchments : wheat, grapes, natural vegetation and forestry Eastern Cape catchments : natural vegetation and forestry The PEM and IMPAQ models were applied reasonably successfully to all the catchments to simulate phosphorous production, with the observed flow as the input. The HSPF model could not successfully be applied to the catchments to simulate both the catchment hydrology and phosphorous production. Hence, the investigation into HSPF was abandoned, and in its place, the ACRU daily phosphorous yield model was incorporated at a fairly late stage in the research. ACRU was applied to only the Western Cape catchments. The estimated parameters for different land use types were compared to investigate the potential for parameter transfer in space and time. Both the PEM and IMP AQ models showed promise that land use parameters could be transferred in time for catchments located in the Western Cape catchments, but did not show promise for catchments located in the Eastern Cape. The IMPAQ model showed promise that land use parameters could be transferred in space for catchments located in the Eastern Cape, but did not perform as well in the Western Cape catchments. The PEM model showed promise that land use parameters could be transferred in space for catchments located in the Western Cape, but did not perform as well in the Eastern Cape. Since the ACRU phosphorous yield model was included at a late stage of the research, the potential for land use parameter transfer in space and time could not investigated. The model results were verified at the relevant flow and water quality gauging stations. The ACRU phosphorous model verification results showed promise for catchments located in humid parts of the Berg River basin, but did not perform as well in the catchment located in the semi-arid part. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: I. Intensive research should be undertaken to develop a database ofland use parameters/ export coefficients related to phosphorous production (and other non-conservative constituents) in South African catchments. Availability of these parameters would make phosphorous modelling much easier. HSPF should be configured and calibrated, more especially its water quality component, for catchments with hourly rainfall and rainfall stations located within/on the catchment boundaries, to investigate its performance under South African conditions. Given the complexity of the HSPF algorithms and the time required to familiarise oneself with the model, it is recommended that such an investigation be undertaken which is not inclusive of any other models. The spatial resolution ofPEM is extremely coarse, and should be improved to allow the user to partition the total flow in the catchment according to contributions from the variety ofland use types and to estimate soluble and particulate phosphorous parameters for each land use type. A study should be undertaken to investigate the potential for the ACRU phosphorous yield model parameter transfer in time and space. Sampling frequency of water quality data in South Africa should be improved, because it is difficult to assess the performance of the calibrated water quality models, more especially phosphorous export models, due to a lack of continuous data sets. Rainfall data collection in gauged catchments, more especially Western Cape catchments (e.g. Twenty-Four Rivers, Leeu, Kompanjies and the Doring River catchments), should be improved. There should be at least one rainfall gauging station located within the catchment boundaries. This would contribute towards achieving reasonable hydrological calibration or verification. Since runoff is the driving factor for water quality components, improved hydrological calibration/verification would result in reasonable water quality calibration/verification.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die navorsing was om die simulering van fosfaat produksie in landelike gebiede, wat 'n verskeidenheid grondgebruike het, met behulp van nie-punt bron evaluerings tegnieke te evulaeer. Vier nie-punt bron evaluerings tegnieke, met die vermoë om fosfaat produksie op verskillende ruimtelike en tyds resolusies te simuleer, is gekies na 'n intensiewe ondersoek van beskikbare literatuur. Die kriteria vir die keuse van die model het ingesluit die vermoë om fosfaat produksie te simuleer, die behoefte vir die studie om 'n reeks van ruimtelike en tyds resolusies te simuleer, model data vereistes, model bekostigbaarheid en beskikbaarheid in Suid Afrika. Die gekose modelle, gebaseer op bogemelde kriteria, was die PEM, IMPAQ, HSPF en ACRU modelle. Vier van die opvanggebiede gebruik in die studie, was in die Bergrivier bekken in die Wes-Kaap en vier was in die Amatole opvanggebiede in die Oos-Kaap. Die vier opvanggebiede in die Bergrivier bekken is die Vier-en- Twentigriviere, Leeurivier, Kompanjiesrivier en die Doringrivier en die vier opvanggebiede in die Amatole opvanggebiede is die Bo-Buffels, Cwencwe, Yellowwoods, en die Gunubierivier opvanggebiede. Grondgebruik beslaan die volgende: Wes-Kaap opvanggebiede : koring, druiwe, natuurlike weiding en plantasies. Oos-Kaap : natuurlike plantegroei en plantasies Die PEM en IMPAQ modelle is met redelike sukses in al die opvanggebiede gebruik vir die simulasie van fosfaat produksie, met die waargenome vloei as invoer. Die HSPF model kan nie met enige sukses gebruik word om beide die opvanggebied hidrologie en fosfaat produksie, te simuleer nie. Die HSPF model is dus uitgeskakel en in 'n redelike laat stadium van die studie met die ACRU daaglikse fosfaat leweringsmodel vervang. Die ACRU model is net op die Wes-Kaap opvanggebiede toegepas. Die beraamde parameters vir die verskillende grondgebruik tipes is vergelyk om die potensiaal vir parameter oordrag in ruimte en tyd te ondersoek. Beide die PEM en IMPAQ modelle het belowend vertoon ten opsigte van die oordrag van grondgebruik parameters in tyd vir opvanggebiede in die Wes- Kaap, maar het geensins belowend vertoon vir die Oos-Kaap opvanggebiede nie. Die IMPAQ model het belowend vertoon ten opsigte van die ruimtelike oordrag van grondgebruik parameters vir die Oos-Kaap opvanggebiede, maar het nie so goed vertoon in die Wes-Kaap opvanggebiede nie. Die PEM model het belowend vertoon ten opsigte van die ruimtelike oordrag dat grondgebruikte parameters in die Wes-Kaap opvanggebiede is, maar het nie so goed in die Oos-Kaap opvanggebiede vertoon nie. Aangesien die ACRU fosfaat leweringsmodel op 'n laat stadium van die navorsing ingesluit is, kan die potensiaal vir die oordrag van grondgebruik parameters in ruimte en tyd nie ondersoek word nie. Die model resultate is by die toepaslike vloei en waterkwaliteit meetstasies geverifiëer Die resultate van die ACRU fosfaat model verifikasie het belowend vertoon vir opvangebiede in die humiede gedeeltes van die Bergrivier bekken, maar het nie so goed vertoon in die semi-droeë deel van die opvangebied nie. AANBEVELINGS VIR VERDERE NAVORSING : Y4 Intensiewe navorsing moet onderneem word ten einde in 'n databasis van grondgebruik parameters/oordrag koëffisiente met betrekking tot fosfaat produksie (en ander niekonserwatiewe bestandelle ) in Suid Afrikaanse opvanggebiede op te bou. Beskikbaarheid van hierdie parameters sal fosfaat modellering vergemaklik. Die HSPF model moet opgestel en gekalibreer word, meer spesifiek ten opsigte van die waterkwaliteit komponent, vir opvanggebiede met uurlikse reënval en reënvalstasies binne of op die opvanggebied grense, om die model se vertoning onder Suid Afrikaanse omstandighede te ondersoek. Gegewe die kompleksiteit van die HSPF algoritmes en tyd benodig om met model vertroud te raak, word dit aanbeveel dat so 'n ondersoek onderneem word met uitsluiting van die ander modelle. Die ruimtelike resolusie van die PEM model is uitermatig grof, en behoort verbeter te word ten einde die gebruiker toe te laat om die totale vloei in die opvanggebied in ooreenstemming met die bydraes van die onderskeie grondgebruik tipes te verdeel en om oplosbare en partikulere fosfaat parameters vir elke grondgebruik tipe te beraam. 'n Studie om die potensiaal vir die ruimtelike en tydsoordrag van die ACRU fosfaat leweringsmodel parameters te ondersoek, moet onderneem word. Die frekwensie van waterkwaliteit monitering in Suid Afrika moet verbeter word, aangesien dit moelik is om, weens 'n gebrek aan deurlopend waargenome data, die vertoning van gekalibreerde waterkwaliteit modelle te ondersoek, meer spesifiek nog fosfaat uitvoer modelle. Reënval inligting versameling in gemete opvanggebied, meer spesifiek die Wes-Kaap opvanggebiede (bv.Vier-en-Twintigriviere, Leeu, Kompanjies en Doringrivier opvanggebiede), behoort verbeter te word. Daar behoort ten minste een reënval stasie binne die opvanggebied grense te wees. Dit sal bydra tot die bereiking van redelike hidrologiese kalibrasie ofverifikasie. Aangesien afloop die dryfveer van die waterkwaliteit komponente is, sal verbeterde hidrologiese kalibrasie/verifikasie lei tot redelike waterkwaliteit kalibrasie/verifikasie.

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