Community development through external aid in rural South Africa : Welverdiend Village : a case study

George, Varkey (2000-12)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis investigates the reasons for failure of community development programmes in rural South Africa. It traces the origin of community development from the end of the Second World War up to the present and states that South Africa has realised that community development is an important tool to bring about a more equitable distribution of wealth. It takes a look at the implementation strategies of development at a broad level, the influence of international aid agencies and traces some of the reasons for the high failure rate of projects. There is a growing trend towards non-governmental organisations becoming more and more involved in the development field. They have evolved from being small grass roots organisations to large structures that provide a service to the community that neither the government nor the private sector can. They plan, raise funds, facilitate, coordinate and implement development projects and they have proved to be highly successful. The focus of study is the need for, effect of and implementation of community development activities in rural South Africa. It also states that development has shifted its focus from purely economic considerations to a more people-centred approach where the fundamental concern is people and their needs. This is a more humane way of looking at development and the underlying thought in most development activity in South Africa today is based on humaneness. It is, however, found that many development initiatives are unsuccessful in achieving its aims completely. It analyses theories on community development and finds that contemporary theories have analysed the reasons for the high failure rate of community development activities and that most theories have recommended implementation strategies by placing people and their needs as priorities. This paper argues that though the people centred approach is most appropriate, certain crucial factors have been missing from these theories. The cause for concern is that there is lack of planning for sustainability and planning for transfer of ownership of projects in such a way that the people involved in the project have a stake in its success. As a result there is lack of motivation on the part of project implementers to carry out projects successfully which is leading to more and more failures of development projects. A thorough study and analysis of certain community development projects initiated at Welverdiend Village in South Africa has been carried out in this study. A background study of the Village is carried out and it is found that the 'liJ.lage is similar in structure to other similar villages. The analysis of projects draws one to the conclusion that there are three crucial factors that improve chances of success of projects. The paper concludes that the key to the success of community development projects are the plans put in place for sustainability, transferring ownership of projects to a group of people or to an individual and ensuring that project participants have a stake in its success or stands to loose something if it fails.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis ondersoek die redes vir mislukking van gemeenskapsontwikkelingsprogramme in landelike Suid Afrika. Die oorsprong van gemeenskapsontwikkeling word bespreek vanaf die einde van die Tweede Wereld Oorlog tot en met die hede, en beweer dat Suid Afrika tot die besef gekom het dat gemeenskapsontwikkeling 'n belangrike meganisme is om 'n meer billike verdeling van welstand te bewerkstellig. Die strategiese uitvoering van ontwikkeling, die invloed van internasionale hulp agentskappe en sommige redes vir die hoë voorval van mislukking van projekte word ondersoek. Daar is 'n groeiende tendens van nie-regeringsorganisasies wat betrokke raak by ontwikkelingsinisiatiewe. Hierdie organisasies (NGOs) het oor 'n kort tydperk ontwikkel vanaf klein, 'grassroots' organisasies tot groot instansies wat massiewe hoeveelhede geld bestuur en bestaan uit duisende lede. Hulle verskaf 'n diens aan die gemeenskap wat nie ge-ewenaar kan word deur die regering of die privaatsektor nie. Hulle doen beplanning, versamel fondse, fasiliteer, ko-ordineer en implementeer ontwikkelingsprojekte. As sulks het NGOs hulself alreeds suksesvol bewys. Die fokus van hierdie studie is die behoefte vir, effek van, en implementasie van gemeenskapsontwikkelingsaktiwiteite in landelike Suid Afrika. Dit beweer ook dat die fokus van ontwikkeling van suiwer ekonomiese oorwegings tot 'n meer mensgesentreerde benadering verskuif het, waar mense en hul behoeftes as fundamenteel beskou word. Dit is 'n meer mensliewende manier om ontwikkeling te beskou en die fundamentele gedagte in meeste van die ontwikkelingsaktiwiteite in Suid Afrika is op hierdie beginsel gebaseer. Daar is tog gevind dat vele ontwikkelingsinisiatiewe onsuksesvol is in die volkome behaling van hul doelwitte. Die tesis ontleed teorieë van gemeenskapsontwikkeling en vind dat hedendaagse teorieë die redes vir die hoë graad van mislukking van gemeenskapsontwikkelingsaktiwiteite aanbeveel het dat mense en hulle behoeftes strategiese prioriteit geniet met die implementering van hierdie aktiwiteite. Hierdie tesis betoog dat alhoewel die mensgsentreerde benadering die mees toepaslike benadering is, daar sekere beslissende faktore afwesig is in hierdie teorieë. Die rede vir kommer is dat daar 'n gebrek aan beplanning wat betref die lewensvatbaarheid en beplanning vir die oorhandiging van eiendomsreg van projekte in so 'n mate dat die mense wat in die projek betrokke is, 'n eie belang in die sukses daarvan het. As gevolg hiervan, is daar 'n gebrek aan motivering aan die kant van die implementeerders van die projek om projekte suksesvol uit te voer, wat tot al hoe meer mislukkings van ontwikkelingsprokekte lei. 'n Deeglike studie en ontleding van sekere gemeenskapsontwikkelingsprojekte wat in Welverdiend Dorp in Suid Afrika ingewy is, is in hierdie studie uitgevoer. 'n Agtergrondstudie van die dorp is uitgevoer en dit is gevind dat die dorp eenders is in struktuur as ander soortgelyke dorpe. Die ontleding van projekte lei 'n mens tot die gevolgtrekking dat daar drie kritieke faktore bestaan wat die kanse van sukses van projekte verbeter. Die sleutel tot die sukses van gemeenskapsontwikkelingsprojekte is in die planne wat lewensvatbaarheid verseker, en wel tot so 'n mate dat wanneer eiendomgsreg van projekte aan 'n groep mense of individue oorgeplaas word, daardie deelnemers aan die projek self ook 'n belang het in die sukses daarvan.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/51656
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