A framework for the analysis of Xhosa texts for teaching reading

Tyala, Abegail Nomapha (2000-03)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigates the reading process as addressed by Davies and Wallace in their research. The key concept of the models of the reading process as explored by Davies with reference to different researchers are examined. These researchers include Gough, whose model of the reading process represents a bottom-up view of the reading process, Goodman's model which reflects a top-down view of the reading process and Rumelhart's interactive model which is an alternative to bottom-up and top-down models. Davies advances a schema-theory which is the development of Rumelhart's interactive model. The study also considers the model of Rayner and Pollatsek as proposed by Davies, namely, the bottom-up interactive model of the reading process. This model intends to be bottom-up, without excluding the interactive features. A further model explored by Davies is that of Mathewson, which incorporates affective factors in reading. Hedge, according to Davies, developed the models of reading into a taxonomy of modes, anchors and drivers. Modes represent the reading behaviours, anchors express knowledge sources, and drivers typify the reading purposes. The study also considers Wallace's approach to the reading process, which represents reading as a psycholinguistic as well as a sociolinguistic process. In addition, this study conducts an investigation of a practical framework for describing and analysing texts; ways of describing differences amongst texts as proposed by Wallace and the integration of different descriptions of texts. Levels of text analysis and the theoretical foundation of the analytic procedure are considered. The last part of this discussion provides some perspectives on reaching reading in the outcomes-based curriculum for language, literacy and communication (see Appendix B). In the next part of the study an analysis of the Xhosa Bona magazine articles is offered which commences with the recapitulation of the framework for the analysis of texts. This framework includes elements such as the discourse type and genre; textual units and their functions; rhetorical functions and rhetorical patterns; text cohesion; text coherence and language choice as a reflection of the writer's communicative purpose or goal. Each article is analysed according to the framework assumed. The study invokes Davies' analytic framework for the analysis of the Bona magazine articles. The last part of this research explores the significance between Davies' model and the requirements of outcomes-based language teaching.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die studie ondersoek 'n praktiese raamwerk vir die beskrywing en analise van tekste, maniere vir die beskrywing van verskille tussen tekste soos voorgestel deur Wallace, en die integrasie van die verskillende beskrywings van tekste. Die vlakke van teksanalise en die teoretiese basis van die analitiese prosedure word bespreek. Die laaste deel van hierdie bespreking skenk aandag aan perspektiewe oor die onderrig van leesvaardigheid in die Uitkoms-gebaseerde kurrikulum vir die leerveld tale, geletterdheid en kommunikasie (sien Bylae B). In die volgende deel van die studie word 'n analise gedoen van Xhosa BONA tydskrifartikels, wat begin met 'n rekapitulasie van die raamwerk vir die analise van tekste. Hierdie raamwerk sluit elemente in soos diskoerstipe en genre, retoriese funksies en taalkeuse as 'n refleksie van die skrywer se kommunikatiewe doelstellings. Elke artikel word ontleed volgens die analitiese raamwerk van Davies. Die laaste deel van die studie ondersoek die verband en betekenis van Davies se leesmodel vir die onderrig van lees volgens die vereistes van die Uitkoms-gebaseerde kurrikulum.

ISICATSHULWA: Esi sifundo sijongene nophando ngendlela yokufunda njengoko indululwe ngokaDavies noWallace kwiincwadi zabo. Le ngqikelelo yemifuziselo yofundo njengoko iphononongwa ngulo kaDavies ngokubhekisele le ke kwizimvo zabacebi, nayo iyahlolwa kwesi sifundo. Aba bacebi bale mifuziselo yale ngqikelelo yofundo ngaba balandelayo; okaGough, omfuziselo wakhe wofundo ubonisa ukuba ufundo luqala phantsi luye phezulu oko kukuthi, phantsi-phezulu, kanti yena uGoodman uqikelela ufundo njengento eqala phezulu iye phantsi, oko kukuthi, phezulu-phantsi. Kukho ke noluvo lokaRumelhart malunga nolu qikelelo-fundo. Vena uceba ufundo okanye umfuziselo wofundo osebenzisanayo, futhi oluyenye indlela endaweni yezi zimbini zit hi phantsi-phezulu okanye phezulu-phantsi. Ngaphaya koko, uDavies uvelisa enye indlela ekwacetywa nguRumelhart, athi ukuyibiza yinkcazo-ngcingane (theory) yeskima. Yona ikhulisa ikwaqhubela phambili le yomfuziselo osebenzisanayo (interactive model). Isifundo esi sikwaluthathela ingqalelo uluvo lukaRayner noPollatsek ngokuphakanyiswa nguDavies, olu ke lokuba bacebe inkqubo yofundo oluqala phantsi luye phezulu luze luhlangane nolu lukaRumelhart lokusebenzisana. Injongo yale nkqubo yofundo lwabo kukuba baqiniseke ngofundo oluqala phantsi luye phezulu phofu bengakhange nakancinane balahle ezo mpawu zolo fundo losebenziswano. Omnye umfuziselo wofundo owaziswa nguDavies ngokaMathewson. Wona ke ubandakanya iimeko ezichukumisayo xeshikweni ubani afundayo (affective factors). UDavies ukwasichazela nangoluvo lukaHedge othe yena le mifuziselo (models) yokufunda wayihlela ngokwezintlu azibiza ngokuba ziindlela zokuziphatha xa ufundayo (modes) okanye (reading behaviours), neeankile (anchors) ezithetha indawo apho ubani afumana khona ulwazi (knowledge sources) kunye nezo athi ngabaqhubi (drivers). Zona ke zibonisa iinjongo zokuba ubani afunde oko asukuba ekufunda. OkaWallace ufundo olu ulubonisa ngeyakhe indlela eyahlukileyo kwabanye aba. Ulubona njengenkqubo ehlanganisa inzululwazi ngezengqondo edibaniselene nenzululwazi ngezolwimi, edibeneyo (unitary) nekhethayo (and selective), kunye naleyo inenzululwazi ngoluntu neelwimi (sociolinguistic). Ukongeza apho isifundo esi siphonononga indlela ephathekayo yokuchaza nokucazulula okubhaliweyo (text analysis); iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokuchaza umahluko phakathi kwezinto ezibhaliweyo. Oku ke kudibene nezimvo ezivela kokaWallace. Ukuhlanganiswa kwezi ndlela zahlukeneyo zokuchaza okubhaliweyo; imigangatho yokubhaliweyo (levels of text); eyiyeyona isetyenziswayo nefundwa ngokubanzi jikelele; isiseko (basic) senkcazo eyingcingane senkqubo yocazululo kwakunye ke nokuveliswa kweendlela ezimisiweyo ezahlukeneyo zolu calulo lokubhaliweyo, zonke zikhankanyiwe kwesi sifundo. Indawo yokugqibela yolu phando inika iinkcazelo ngamagama athile (terms) afumaneka kufundo ngeelwimi olubhekiselele kwiziqhamo zokufundwayo (outcomes-based language study). Emveni koku ke ngoku kulandela ucazululo-ncakasana lwamanqaku omhleli kalindixesha wesiXhosa ekuthiwa yiBona, cazululo 010 oluqala ngokuwenza amavandlakanya ngendlela lo kaDavies aceba ngayo ucazululo lokubhaliweyo. Le ndlela ke yile ilandelayo; idiskhosi nejenra; iziqwengana zentetho ebhaliweyo (textual units) nemisebenzi yazo; imisebenzi yeentetho zobuciko (rhetorical functions), neendlela zobuciko (rhetorical patterns); ukunxibelelana nokuyondelelana kokubhaliweyo (text coherence and text cohesion); nokhetho magamallwimi ngendlela yokubonisa iinjongo nomyalezo wombhali (language choices as a reflection of the writer's communicative goal and purpose). Inqakwana (article) ngalinye kula sesithethe ngawo ngentla apha, licazululwa ngokwale ndlela ixeliweyo endululwe ngulo kaDavies. Ngaphandle koko isifundo esi sihlola unxibelelwano phakathi kwendlela yocazululo lokubhaliweyo ecetywa nguDavies kunye nendlela athe la manqaku eBona acazululwa ngayo. Ekugqibeleni kwako konke uphando olu luthabatha ingqalelo kumcimbi wonxibelelwano phakathi kwendlela le kaDavies yocazululo nocalulo lokubhaliweyo kunye nofundiso lolwimi olujongene neziqhamo zokufundwayo (outcomes-based language teaching).

 
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