Restructuring in a South Africa city during transition : urban development and transformation in Pietersburg during the 1990s

Donaldson, Sybrand Eloff (1999)

Thesis (D.Phil.) -- University of Stellenbosch, 1999.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The effect of apartheid on the spatial form, administrative functions, economic disparities, and social composition of South Africa's cities and towns shows remarkable consistency. Yet, each urban area has its own historic character, bureaucratic and political composition, internal civil structures, and diversity of attitudes to a changing society. This dissertation focuses on how four urban restructurings are reshaping and reordering the former conservative city of Pietersburg in the 1990s. This is done within the framework of broader national political processes and legislation. Given the broad scope of research themes ~n the study data collection methods have been applied within an eclectic approach. First, however, is an analysis of the historiography of Pietersburg setting the scene for interpreting the spatially fragmented urban settlement system that developed during the apartheid city period. Contemporary linkage patterns between Pietersburg and the proclaimed former Lebowa towns are explored in using data obtained in a questionnaire survey conducted in Seshego, Mankweng, Pietersburg and Lebowakgomo. How this dispersed settlement pattern should be restructured in the future - seeing that they are administratively separated - is interpreted in finding a different form of governance. Local government restructuring in Pietersburg and Seshego is investigated in covering each of the transitional facets of local government changes (i .e. from formation of LGNF to election outcomes). The city's performances are evaluated in terms of certain criteria. The White Paper on Local Government is placed in the context of the above findings and a proposal. At the dawn of 1990, Pietersburg had achieved its apartheid aims. An empirical investigation of the spatial evolution of residential desegregation in Pietersburg between June 1991 and May 1997 shows how residential spaces have changed. Residential mobility trends that occurred and new residential groupings emerging after apartheid are identified. An analysis of the housing market is also provided. Qualitative (residents' perceptions of residential integration) and quantitative data (statistical measurements of segregation) are used in analyses. Understanding processes involved in deregulation and re-regulation of street trading during a period of transition are discussed within a conceptual framework. The investigation sheds light on how successful street trading policy formulation and its implementation during urban transition have transformed the former apartheid city. Aspects explored include a concise historical overview of business space segregation under apartheid rule and the resulting spatial effects of it; an analysis of post-apartheid integration and the restructuring of urban business space, chiefly illustrating the distinction between desegregation and deracialisation processes of urban business space transformation; a discussion of the deregulation and subsequent re-regulation of informal street trading as an example of informal urban development; and some planning suggestions regarding the process of desegregating central business space are advocated. The most important policy documents developed during the 1990s to redress the current urban realities conclude the empirical analysis. A discussion of the Land Development Objective process and policy formulation in Pietersburg with the implementation of their Urban Development Framework scrutinises restructuring in spatial terms. A synthesis provides a conceptual framework for understanding urban restructuring phases in Pietersburg. A concept 21st-century South African city model is also proposed. Keywords: Urban restructuring, Pietersburg, informal sector, local government, spatial restructuring, 21st century South African city, urban linkages.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die effek van apartheid op die ruimtelike vorm, administratiewe funksionering, ekonomiese ongelykhede en sosiale samestelling van Suid Afrikaanse stede en dorpe toon merkwaardige ooreenkomste. Tog het elke stedelike gebied sy eie historiese karakter, burokratiese en politieke samestelling, inteme burgerlike strukture, en 'n diversiteit van houdings teenoor 'n veranderende samelewing. Die proefskrif fokus op hoe vier stedelike herstruktureringprosesse die voormalige konserwatiewe stad Pietersburg hervorm en verander in die 1990s. Dit word gedoen binne die raamwerk van breer nasionale politieke prosesse en wetgewing. Gegewe die bree omvang van die navorsingtema is die data-insamelingsmetodes toegepas binne 'n eklektiese benadering. Eerstens, egter, word die historiografie van Pietersburg geillustreer deur die ruimtelik-gefragmenteerde stedelike nedersettingsisteem wat gedurende apartheid ontwikkel het, te beskryf. Huidige skakelingspatrone tussen Pietersburg en die voormalige Lebowa dorpe word ondersoek deur inligting wat tydens 'n vraelysondersoek bekom is in Seshego, Mankweng, Pietersburg en Lebowakgomo te analiseer. Hoe hierdie verspreide nedersettingsisteem in die toekoms herstruktureer kan word, word geinterpreteer binne verskillende vorme van regering. Herstrukturering van plaaslike regering in Pietersburg en Seshego is ondersoek, meer spesifiek die volgende aspekte: alle fasette van plaaslike regering se oorgang en verandering (m.a.w. van die vorming van plaaslike regering onderhandelingsforums tot verkiesingsuitslae). Die stad se werkverigting is geevalueer in terme van sekere kriteria. Die Witskrif op Plaaslike Regering word binne die bogenoemde konteks se bevindinge en voorstelle geplaas. Met die aanbreek van 1990 het Pietersburg sy apartheiddoelstellings bereik. 'n Empiriese ondersoek oor die ruimtelike evolusie van woonbuurtdesegregasie in Pietersburg tussen Junie 1991 en Mei 1997 toon aan hoe die woonbuurtruimtes verander het. Tendense van woonbuurtmobiliteit wat plaasgevind het, en nuwe woonbuurtgroeperings wat na apartheid ontstaan het, word geidentifiseer. 'n Analise van die behuisingsmark word ook gedoen. Kwalitatiewe (inwoners se persepsies in verband. met woonbuurtintegrasie) en kwantitatiewe (statistiese meting van segregasie) analise word betrek. Binne 'n konseptuele raamwerk word prosesse van deregulering en herregulering van straathandel gedurende oorgang bespreek. Die ondersoek werp lig op hoe suksesvol beleid t.o.v. straathandel plaasvind, en hoe dit geimplementeer is om die voormalige apartheidstad te transformeer. Aspekte wat ondersoek word, sluit in 'n bondige historiese oorsig van besigheidsruimte segregasie tydens apartheid en die resulterende ruimtelike effek daarvan; 'n analise van na-apartheid integrasie en die herstrukturering van besigheidsruimte in die lig van 'n tweeledige ondersoek rakende derasionalisasie en desegregasie daarvan; 'n bespreking van die deregulering en daaropvolgende herregulering van die informelestaathandel as 'n voorbeeld van informele stedelike ontwikkeling; en ten slotte word sommige beplanningsvoorstelle t.o.v. die desegregasie van besigheidsruimte in die SSK gemaak. Die belangrikste beleidsdokumente wat tydens die 1990s geformuleer is om die huidige stedelike realiteite op te los, sluit die empiriese ondersoek van die studie af. 'n Bespreking van die grondontwikkelingsproses en beleidsformulering in Pietersburg binne die implementering van die Stedelike Ontwikkelingsraamwerk t.o.v. ruimtelike herstrukturering word gedoen. 'n Sintese word verskaf om 'n konseptuele raamwerk vir stedelike herstrukturerings in Pietersburg te verstaan. 'n Konsep 21ste-eeu Suid-Afrikaanse stadmodel word voorgestel. Sleutelwoorde: Stedelike herstrukrurering, Pietersburg, informele sektor, plaaslike regering, ruimtelike herstrukturering, 21 ste-eeu Suid-Afrikaanse stadmodel, stedelike-skakels.

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